Scientific Journal “Issues of National and Federative Relations”. Volume 9. Issue 8 (53), 2019.

CONTENTS

DOMESTIC HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

  • Boltenkova L.F. Russian Roots in Crimea
  • Vlasov V.I. Russian History in the Context of the Creator's Will (Invitation to Discussion)
  • Nazarov A.D. State Tsarist Russia’s Policy of Discrimination and Forced Resettlement of Aliens During the First World War (On the Materials of Domestic and Foreign Publications)
  • Ushmaeva K.A., Doroshenko D.L. The Social Protection of Motherhood and Childhood in the 1930s: The Problem of Child Homelessness
  • Shalaeva T.M. Economic Activity of the Peoples of the Caucasus in the Light of Cultural Ethnocentrism
  • Ananchenko A.B. The Establishment of One-Party System in the Soviet State: 1917-1928 Years
  • Olshanskaya L.V. Moscow Commercial Court: Historical Sketch
  • Kucherov M.S. State-Church Relations in the 1940s-1980s on the Example of Kurgan Eparchy
  • Pavlova A.N. The Party “Moors and Christians”: Traditions and Current State
  • Rupich M.V. Counterintelligence Provision of Units and Formations of the Red Army in the Far East in the 1920s.

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND POLITICAL HISTORY

  • Gritsenko R.A., Prokopchuk D.D. Institutionalization of Political Parties of Modern Russia

POLITICAL REGIONAL STUDIES AND ETHNOPOLITICS

  • Dubrovina O.V., Salamov R.R. Experience of International and Foreign Economic Connections of Novosibirsk Oblast
  • Sabirova E.N. Ethnosocial Aspects of the Development of the Jewish People in Bashkortostan

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

  • Petrov D.Yu. Political Communication in Conditions of Modern Development of Information Technologies

POLITICAL CONFLICTOLOGY

  • Zorin V.Yu., Oreshin S.A. Experience of Peaceful Settlement of the Chechen Conflict in 1995-1996: Achievements and Miscalculations (Part One)
  • Ermachenkova V.D. Influence of the "Crimean Question" on the Political Relations of Ukraine with Russia

POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF THE GLOBALIZING WORLD

  • Martynenko E.V., Taran I.A. Analysis of German Regional Periodicals in the Context of the Migration Issue
  • Zaytseva E.A., Korovina E.V., Trofimova Yu.V. Problems and Prospects of Cooperation Between Russia and NATO in the XXI Century
  • Dolaeva F.K. The Role of Strategic Communications in Modern US Foreign Policy
  • Zemskova A.Yu. The Prospect of Ukraine's European Integration after the Crisis of 2014
  • Strochkova O.O. Ukraine's Participation in the Program «Eastern Partnership»: the Position of Russia and the EU

HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD POLICY

  • Dobrynina M.V. The Educational Policy of the United States of America of the XIX – Beginning of XX Century and its Impact on the Soviet System of Engineering Education
  • Hossein Mohannad The Development of Cultural Cooperation Between Russia and the Countries of the Middle East in 1990-2000-ies: an Institutional Aspect

REVIEWS

Ivanova M.G., Moseikina M.N., Slizovskiy D.E. Review of the Article by L.F. Boltenkova and N.P. Medvedev «Ethnic Component in the Political Relations of Ancient Russia» Published in the Journal «Issues of National and Federative Relations». 2019. Т. 9. № 6 (51)

Our authors № 8-2019

DOMESTIC HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

L.F. BOLTENKOVA Doctor of Sciences (history), Professor at the Institute of public administration and management, Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIAN ROOTS IN CRIMEA

The article, albeit briefly, but clearly traces historical connection of the territories forming modern Russia: Crimea, the North Caucasus, the Volga region, Siberia, etc since the period before BC. Russian roots are traced historically and naturally appear in the Crimea even in the period prior to Kiev Rus, they strengthened during the Kiev period of the Ancient Russian state. Due to the loss by Kiev of its sovereignty and its entry into the Lithuanian-Polish state, Russian ties with Crimea were historically and successively carried out by North-Eastern Russia (Moscow). Although the main form of communication was «attack – defense», but it forged the victory of Russia (Moscow) at the cost of enormous casualties.

Key words: Crimea, Russia, «Scythia», Khazar khanate, Byzantium, Tmutarakan Principality, Chersonese (Kherson), Moscow.

V.I. VLASOV Doctor of Law, Professor, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIAN HISTORY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CREATOR'S WILL (INVITATION TO DISCUSSION)

The article, based on the analysis of scientific and religious sources, shows the close interdependence of the attitude of the subjects of Russian history to the Orthodox faith and the results of their earthly activities. Faith in God and prayer to him led to a positive outcome of any case for the benefit of our Fatherland (Russia).

Key words: Russian history, Creator's (God's) Providence, Alexander Nevsky, Dmitri Donskoy, Church, Russian people, prayer, spirit of the Russian people.

A.D. NAZAROV Doctor of Sciences (history), Professor at the Chair of advertising and public relations of the Institute of foreign languages of the Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University) (MAI), Moscow, Russia

STATE TSARIST RUSSIA’S POLICY OF DISCRIMINATION AND FORCED RESETTLEMENT OF ALIENS DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR (ON THE MATERIALS OF DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN PUBLICATIONS)

In his article, the author, involving extensive factual material that appeared in the years after the centenary of the First World War, touches on a little-studied topic of the policy of Tsarist Russia in respect of the so-called aliens, especially Germans, Jews, Austrians, Hungarians, and Poles, discriminated against and forcibly deported, as well as refugees and immigrants of other nationalities from the frontline territories, left without means to survival due to the unrestricted arbitrariness of the military and civilian authorities. Whith regard to the policy of repression, ill-treatment and other actions, both in respect of their own alien population and residents of the occupied territories, clearly manifested during the First World War, it should be noted that the world community has not developed effective humane comprehensive approach to neutralize this vicious practice. It was vividly confirmed two decades later in an even bloodier and more brutal Second World War and continued in the post-war era, sometimes echoing in the military conflicts of the XXI century.

Key words: First World War, aliens, «stripping» front-line areas, waves of refugees, war as a national catastrophe, xenophobia.

K.A. USHMAEVA Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of historical disciplines and methods of teaching of the Stavropol state pedagogical Institute, Professor of the Department of Administrative Law and Administrative Activity of the Stavropol Branch of the Krasnodar University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, Stavropol, Russia

D.L. DOROSHENKO graduate student of the Department of Historical Disciplines and Methods of Teaching, Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russia

THE SOCIAL PROTECTION OF MOTHERHOOD AND CHILDHOOD IN THE 1930S: THE PROBLEM OF CHILD HOMELESSNESS

In modern conditions, despite the declared worldwide priority of family education, many more children are left without family care – in orphanages. Studying the evolution of social policy in relation to motherhood and childhood in the early Soviet period will allow us to see the roots of modern problems and come closer to solving them. Children's homelessness has become one of the social phenomena since the first years of Soviet power. Social cataclysms, on the one hand, and the state’s conscious destruction of the institution of the family in the 1920s, on the other, increased the number of street children from year to year. An analysis of the documents of the state archive of the Stavropol Territory showed that, despite the official statement on the elimination of homelessness, this problem remains relevant for the whole decade of the 1930s. The disorder of life in orphanages, the indifference of government officials to the fate of children left without parents, the criminalization of children's institutions are signs of the 1930s. As the ideologization of society in all directions intensified, the problem of homelessness was resolved more formally by the end of the 1930s – by strengthening educational measures and the preventive work of the local party cell.

Key words: motherhood, childhood, social protection, street children.

T.M. SHALAEVA Doctor of Sciences (history), chief researcher, Ethnology Department, Institute of humanitarian research of the Academy of Sciences of the Chechen Republic, Grozny, Russia

ECONOMIC ACTIVITY OF THE PEOPLES OF THE CAUCASUS IN THE LIGHT OF CULTURAL ETHNOCENTRISM

Proponents of ethnocentrism appreciate the culture of one ethnic group as the universal standard (William Sumner, Ludwig Gumplovicz) when other ethnic groups can view it as disrespectful to their culture. In the other direction, denying the ethnocentrism – cultural relativism (Boas F.) acknowledges each culture's unique values. This is also difficult to agree with. They are right when they consider the culture of each ethnic group unique. However, the uniqueness of the culture of one ethnic group may not always be unique for another ethnic group, and from this point of view, it is not possible to refer to the system of universal values. National culture can have both local and regional coloring.

Key words: activity, ethnocentrism, culture, economy, nation.

A.B. ANANCHENKO candidate of history, head of the Department of modern national history, Director of the Institute of history and policy, Moscow, Russia

THE ESTABLISHMENT OF ONE-PARTY SYSTEM IN THE SOVIET STATE: 1917-1928 YEARS

The article deals with the essence of the Soviet political system that formed after 1917. The ratio of multi-party and one-party as its stages of formation is considered. The problem of the chronological boundaries of the Soviet multi-party system, the formation of a new political system and the Soviet political revolution is raised. 1928 is estimated as the upper border of the Soviet multi-party system with the termination of the activities of the Jewish Communist workers ' party "Poalei Zion".

Key words: power, political system, state, one-party system, multiparty system, revolution, political revolution.

L.V. OLSHANSKAYA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of International Relations and the Geopolitics of Transport Institute of International Transport Communications Russian University of Transport RTH (MIIT), Moscow, Russia

MOSCOW COMMERCIAL COURT: HISTORICAL SKETCH

In this article, the author considers the emergence of the institution of commercial courts in the Russian Empire to resolve trade disputes. Particularly, the author considers the establishment of the Moscow Commercial Court at the beginning of the 19th century as an important link in the development of trade relations in the Moscow province. The role of prominent figures of the Russian Empire, their contribution to the development and improvement of commercial litigation is analyzed, their professional biographies are being reconstructed. The article formulates conclusions about the importance of merchant ships for this region, about the undoubted need of the region for commercial justice for the successful development of economic relations.

Key words: commercial courts, economic development, the establishment of commercial courts, Moscow province, members of the court, salary, material support of a commercial court.

M.S. KUCHEROV post-graduate student of the Moscow Theological Academy, Archpriest, Rector of the Holy Trinity Church of Kurgan, Head of the diocesan Department of religious education and catechism, Kurgan, Russia

STATE-CHURCH RELATIONS IN THE 1940S-1980S ON THE EXAMPLE OF KURGAN EPARCHY

The article covers the 70-year period of the history of education and development of the Kurgan diocese. For the first time it raises the question of formation of the diocese in Kurgan in 1945, and its independent existence until 1958, it discusses the features of the diocesan administration in the Soviet period. The modern period reveals the stage of revival of the diocesan structural unit in the Kurgan region and its further transformation into the metropolis.

Key words: Russian Orthodox Church, diocese of Kurgan, Kurgan Archdiocese, deanery, diocesan administration, Church-state relations.

A.N. PAVLOVA International Institute of Linguistics and Humanities, Departament of Foreign Languages, Moscow, Russia

THE PARTY “MOORS AND CHRISTIANS”: TRADITIONS AND CURRENT STATE

Based on studying the elements of the holiday culture of Spain, the peculiarities of ethnic development of that country are derived. It is shown that the holiday culture is not only the source of studying the fundamentals of non-material culture, but also contains an important political and social information. The party, which is called the Moors and Christians is considered and analyzed deliberately. The evolution of this party, since the moment of its formation till nowadays, is presented. The peculiarities of conducting ritual processions, battles and culmination moments of this party are considered. The peculiarities of modern traditions of conducting this party, implying the equal participation of women together with the men in the party processions and battles, are derived. It is shown that together with keeping the traditions of holding this party several modifications of its separate elements take part, which is determined by the peculiarities of modern political and social development of Spain.

Key words: ethnology, social anthropology, holiday culture, Spain, moors and Christians, the Valensian community, non-material culture.

M.V. RUPICH Graduate student of the Pacific State University in Khabarovsk, Khabarovsk, Russia

COUNTERINTELLIGENCE PROVISION OF UNITS AND FORMATIONS OF THE RED ARMY IN THE FAR EAST IN THE 1920S.

The article describes the activities of the Soviet military counterintelligence bodies to ensure the security of the Red Army in the Far East. On the basis of archival materials the author shows the main directions of counterintelligence work of special units of GPU.

Key words: red Army, counterintelligence provision, special departments, special Far Eastern Army.

THEORY, PHILOSOPHY AND POLITICAL HISTORY

R.A. GRITSENKO Master Student of the Department of International Relations, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

D.D. PROKOPCHUK Master Student of the Department of International Relations, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

INSTITUTIONALIZATION OF POLITICAL PARTIES OF MODERN RUSSIA

An important element in the formation of a full-fledged civil society is the development of the party system and political parties. The institutionalization of parties is manifested in the process of increasing the importance of parties within the state, obtaining and strengthening their positions and a certain stability. In the modern world, the party system is an integral basic element of the political system as a whole.

The political field of modern Russia began to take shape in the early 90s of the XX century, which was directly related to various ideological divisions. One of these divisions was the denial of the monopoly of the Communist Party in the state, which proclaimed the principles of both political and ideological pluralism. The fact of the emergence of a multi-party system after the seventy-year dominance of one party in the political sphere is already a significant difference between old politics and new ones. That is why there is a need to analyze the modern institution of political parties in Russia in order to assess the degree of institutionalization in the state, as well as evaluate the effectiveness of the existing party system in the country. This article will examine the main indicators that reflect the level of party institutionalization in modern Russia.

Key words: institutionalization, political system, political parties, parliamentarism, political institutions, political and legal institute, political power, state, political elite, electorate.

POLITICAL REGIONAL STUDIES AND ETHNOPOLITICS

O.V. DUBROVINA Dr.Sci. (Pol.Sci.), Professor, Chancellor of the Siberian Institute of International Relations and Regional Studies, Novosibirsk, Russia

R.R. SALAMOV postgraduate student of the Siberian Institute of International Relations and Regional Studies, Novosibirsk, Russia

EXPERIENCE OF INTERNATIONAL AND FOREIGN ECONOMIC CONNECTIONS OF NOVOSIBIRSK OBLAST

This article focuses on the experience of international and foreign economic connections of Novosibirsk Oblast. The main purpose of the article is an analysis of the features of economic paradiplomacy of the Russian Federation’s regions in the case of Novosibirsk Oblast. The main research methods used in this study are analysis and synthesis, systems approach, institutional method, structure functional analysis, event analysis. The study also reveals ongoing experience of economic paradiplomacy of Novosibirsk Oblast during the period from 2017 to 2018. Moreover, this article aims to define priority direction, forms and areas of international cooperation of the region.

Key words: Russian Federation, Siberian Federal District, Novosibirsk Oblast, federalism, paradiplomacy, international cooperation.

E.N. SABIROVA Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, Senior Lecturer, Ufa, Russia

ETHNOSOCIAL ASPECTS OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE JEWISH PEOPLE IN BASHKORTOSTAN

It is well known that the Jewish people in the former Russian Empire, and especially in the Soviet Union, had significant specific features of ethnosocial development. Firstly, due to the peculiarities of resettlement and the specialization of employment, Jews always, even in imperial times, occupied corresponding social niches of predominantly urban space. This was especially true of Jewish immigrants to new territories, in our case, to the lands of modern Bashkiria. Therefore, among the Ufa Jews (that is, those living within the Ufa and Orenburg provinces) employment in the small and medium trade, crafts, medicine, etc. prevailed. Secondly, even before the revolution, among the Ufa Jews one of the highest levels of education was observed, compared to other ethnic groups. For example, according to the data of the First General Census of the Population of 1897, 72% of the Jews in the Ufa province were literate in their native language (Yiddish), and 35% even possessed Russian literacy. Among women, the literacy rate in the native and Russian languages was 45.9% and 32.5%, respectively. In the country as a whole, as noted by some experts, even in the imperial period, Jews were superior in terms of education: in 1897, there were 38% literate among them, and only 18% of the entire population of the empire. This article will discuss the quantitative composition of the Jewish population of Bashkortostan, will analyze the levels of economic well-being, as well as education of the Jewish population.

Key words: Jewish people, ethnosocial aspects, statistics, ethno-dispersed group, level of education, population census.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

D.Yu. PETROV postgraduate student of the Department of information Management, of the journalism Department, Russian presidential Academy of national economy and public administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL COMMUNICATION IN CONDITIONS OF MODERN DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES

The article examines the nature and the typical characteristics of the main aspects of the political communication changes in the information society. A study of the evolution new communication technologies and the specifics of the communication, which they provide reveals its innovation potential and effects. Analysis of the main areas of research allows to select the most important problems present in scientific discourse in this area.

Key words: sociology of management, technology, information process, public authorities, political communication, network society.

POLITICAL CONFLICTOLOGY

V.Yu. ZORIN doctor of political sciences, professor, chief researcher, Institute of ethnology and anthropology of N.N. Miklukho-Maclay RAS, Moscow, Russia

S.A. ORESHIN candidate of historical sciences, research associate, Institute of ethnology and anthropology of N.N. Miklukho-Maclay of RAS, Moscow, Russia

EXPERIENCE OF PEACEFUL SETTLEMENT OF THE CHECHEN CONFLICT IN 1995-1996: ACHIEVEMENTS AND MISCALCULATIONS (PART ONE)

In article the authors analyzes attempts of achievement of peaceful settlement of armed conflict in the Chechen Republic in 1995-1996. From the very beginning of armed conflict in bodies of legislative and executive power of the Russian Federation there was a powerful movement aimed at finding a peace alternative to military operations and achievement of a compromise. Different government structures, including Territorial Department of federal executive authorities in the Chechen Republic, The Ministry of the Russian Federation for nationalities and regional policy; Russian State Duma Committee on affairs of nationalities; Federation Council were involved in activities for development of ways of an achievement of peace. Group of assistance of OSCE played the big role in negotiation process.

Process of peaceful settlement took place a number of stages. In December to the 1994-half of 1995 attempt of achievement of a compromise terminated in failure since in the leadership of the Russian Federation the line on power suppression of the separatist movement was dominated. However in process of prolongation of war and increase of terrorist threat outside a zone of the conflict came the understanding of need of establishing dialog between the conflicting parties and achievements of a mutually acceptable compromise. Most intensively and fruitfully negotiation process took place in June-September, 1995 and May-June, 1996.

The most considerable achievements which allowed to approach an achievement of peace in Chechnya at that time were the Agreement on military questions of July 30, 1995; activity of Special supervisory commission in August-September, 1995; May negotiations in top-level Moscow in 1996 and the Nazran protocols of June 10, 1996. In spite of the fact that owing to a number of the objective and subjective reasons to achieve peace in Chechnya then it was not possible, anti-recessionary experience of peaceful settlement and carrying out negotiation process can be used during search of a solution of relevant ethnopolitical conflicts in the present time.

Key words: Russian Federation, Chechen Republic, The First Chechen war, ethnopolitical conflict, peaceful settlement, negotiation process, Agreement on July 30, 1995, Nazran protocols of 1996, Khasavyurt agreements of 1996.

V.D. ERMACHENKOVA graduate, Department of Comparative Political Science, Faculty of Political Science Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

INFLUENCE OF THE "CRIMEAN QUESTION" ON THE POLITICAL RELATIONS OF UKRAINE WITH RUSSIA

The Crimea was especially distinguished from the rest of the Ukrainian regions. On the territory of the peninsula was located the city of Sevastopol, which was subordinate to the center, and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea until March 17, 2014. The history of this region has only a small relationship to the formation of Ukraine. For this reason, the culture of the Ukrainian people is minimally represented in the Crimea. On the territory of the peninsula, indigenous Ukrainians are a minority. At the same time, they, including the use of Russian in everyday life, and reflect the mental specifics and preferences that show the true Russian, located on the territory of the Crimea. Due to the fact that a large proportion of those living in Crimea are represented by Russians and Russian speakers, the question of including the peninsula in the complex Ukrainian mechanism of cultural and political reality has been posed acutely since independence by the Ukrainian state. Therefore, concerns about this issue began to emerge as political figures of the Ukrainian SSR immediately after the Crimea was annexed in 1954 to Ukraine.

Key words: foreign policy, Crimea, Russia, Ukraine, autonomy, USSR, UN, referendum.

POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF THE GLOBALIZING WORLD

E.V. MARTYNENKO Doctor of politics, Professor, Vice-rector of RUDN University, Head of Theory and History of Journalism Department, Moscow, Russia

I.A. TARAN Graduate student of the Theory and History of Journalism Department, RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

ANALYSIS OF GERMAN REGIONAL PERIODICALS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MIGRATION ISSUE

The material is devoted to studying the migration problems in German regional press using the example of such popular periodicals as Süddeutsche Zeitung, Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitug and Die Tageszeitung. Unlike the federal press, where the migration issue is covered in great detail and comprehensively at the national level, regional publications pay less attention to this aspect. They traditionally gravitate to issues constitutionally referring to the land governments of the federal republic – the social, humanitarian and cultural agendas. For this reason, migration issues are often presented in the regional press of the country as a few materials about refugees living in these regions, about their fate and difficulties, indicating the imperfection of the German migration policy as a whole.

Key words: regional press, social issues, politics, economics, adaptation.

E.A. ZAYTSEVA Candidate of economical sciences, Alekseev State Technical University, Associate professor of PR, Marketing and Communications Department, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

E.V. KOROVINA Candidate of historical sciences, Associate Professor, Alekseev State Technical University, Associate professor of PR, Marketing and Communications Department, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

Yu.V. TROFIMOVA Candidate of historical sciences, Alekseev State Technical University, Associate professor of PR, Marketing and Communications Department, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF COOPERATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND NATO IN THE XXI CENTURY

The relevance of researching the problems and prospects of cooperation between Russia and NATO in the XXI century, taking into account new geopolitical realities and rapidly changing challenges and threats to European and global security, is extremely important. Whether or not the mechanisms of cooperation between Russia and bloc states can be effective – this is critical for the further design of the system of international relations, the formulation and implementation of foreign policy doctrines of the bloc states and Russian Federation, the character of foreign policy decisions in security issues, the formation of new tools and agreements to strengthen Russia’s position in the Euro-Atlantic security system. The Russia-NATO relations crisis that developed after 2014 consolidates the negative dynamics in the development of cooperation on key issues of regional and global security, contributes to the loss of previously existing mechanisms for participation and presence for Russia in the Euro-Atlantic security system and, sometimes, liquidation of previously existing agreements and obligations (Treaty on Conventional Forces in Europe, Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty).

In modern international realities, the alliance continues to build up its own military forces, develop scenarios for countering threats from a potential adversary, support anti-Russian rhetoric in the media and ignore Russian collective security initiatives. Historical approach allows to analyze the evolution of relations between Russia and NATO at the beginning of the XXI century, to assess the existing problems of interaction and factors influencing the rapid expansion of the North Atlantic alliance eastward, to develop a medium-term scenario for the development of relations between Russia and the NATO bloc, taking into account the maintenance of the existing security system and highlighting strategic areas of cooperation.

Key words: cooperation of Russia with NATO, NATO eastward expansion, European and global security problems, the strategic concept of the alliance, Russia’s geopolitical role.

F.K. DOLAEVA post-graduate student of the Diplomatic Academy of the MFA of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS IN MODERN US FOREIGN POLICY

The United States continues to occupy a leading place on the political map of the world. Strategic communications play a significant role in us foreign policy. The study of strategic communications of the United States is updated in connection with the ongoing large-scale information campaigns both to combat global threats of a terrorist nature and to promote national superiority. The us Department of state uses a combination of traditional and digital tools to influence the receptive audience of foreign countries, including through the launch of a new global interaction center to synchronize the exchange of messages with foreign audiences. The article notes that among the main forms of strategic communications used by the United States, a special role is played by public relations, public diplomacy and information operation. Moreover, all the designated forms are used in an inextricable relationship. Meanwhile, the growing role of state propaganda campaigns in the media aimed at foreign audiences has increased the capacity of public diplomacy to adapt to new challenges and threats.

Key words: strategic communications, public diplomacy, information-communication technologies, propaganda, foreign policy, USA, international relations.

A.Yu. ZEMSKOVA Ph.D. Student of Comparative Politics Department, MGIMO-University MFA of Russia, Moscow, Russia

THE PROSPECT OF UKRAINE'S EUROPEAN INTEGRATION AFTER THE CRISIS OF 2014

Introduction. Ukraine represents itself a rather complicated mechanism. The reason for such a phenomenon lies in its’ historical past. As for its’ geographical position, Ukraine is situated between Eastern Europe and Eurasia. In the most ancient period of history, the territory of modern Ukraine was the periphery of the Great Roman Empire. Then, the area between the Baltic Sea and the Black Sea became a strip dividing two major civilizations - European and Slavic. Therefore, the regions of modern Ukraine were the parts of different civilizations. The absence of a single historical past determines the specifics of this state.

Aim. The scientific purpose of this article is to prove the fact that the current internal political crisis in Ukraine is a consequence of two major factors: specific geographical position (Ukraine is the periphery of the Great Roman Empire) and historical past (Ukrainian regions were the parts of different states). Moreover, the author analyzes both the reasons of the current political crisis and possible prospects for Ukraine’s European integration in this article.

Result. By means of the historical and space-time approach, the author proves the hypothesis. One can also talk about the application of a systematic approach to the study, because a large number of players were directly and indirectly involved in the events of Euromaidan.

Conclusion. The prospect for the Ukranian European integration, from the point of view of the author, seems unlikely. In particular, the failure of bilateral relations between Ukraine and the EU after Maidan, the growth of unresolved problems, the widening gap between expectations and the results may very well lead to a change in the European public perception and, thus, European integration.

Key words: Ukraine, European Union, European Integration, Russia, crisis, strategic choice.

O.O. STROCHKOVA post-graduate student of the European security Department, Institute of Europe RAS, Moscow, Russia

UKRAINE'S PARTICIPATION IN THE PROGRAM «EASTERN PARTNERSHIP»: THE POSITION OF RUSSIA AND THE EU

The article is devoted to the problems of Ukraine's participation in the EU program «Eastern partnership». The author examines Russian and European attitudes to Ukraine's participation in this program, and correlates its goals with the interests of Ukraine. There is a conclusion that the EU position on the development of relations with Ukraine is not clear, and relations within the «Eastern partnership» do not guarantee further European integration, although it is one that Ukraine is seeking today, without considering the Eurasian direction of integration.

Key words: Eastern Partnership, Ukraine, Russia, the EU, CIS, EAEU, economy, energy sector, integration.

HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND WORLD POLICY

М.V. DOBRYNINA Candidate of Sciences (political sciences), Associate Professor at the Chair of economics, management and finance, Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology, Moscow, Russia

THE EDUCATIONAL POLICY OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA OF THE XIX – BEGINNING OF XX CENTURY AND ITS IMPACT ON THE SOVIET SYSTEM OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION

In the article the author considers the features of the US policy in relation to engineering education. As policy imperatives, he highlights the subjectivity of civil society, the participation of the state through supportive and stimulating impact on the educational system, taboo management, controlling or coordinating the intervention of the Federal authorities. The author traces how the us Federal authorities influenced the system of engineering education through the adoption of the Laws of 1862 and 1917. Analyzes the causes and consequences of Americanization of educational policy of the USSR in the 30s of the twentieth century.

Key words: educational policy, engineering education, civil society, state support, democracy, state subsidies.

HOSSEIN MOHANNAD Postgraduate, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

THE DEVELOPMENT OF CULTURAL COOPERATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE COUNTRIES OF THE MIDDLE EAST IN 1990-2000-IES: AN INSTITUTIONAL ASPECT

Thе subject of this research is the evolution of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the countries of the Middle East in the field of culture. The object of the study is the historical experience of the development of interstate cooperation on the development of cultural cooperation between Russia and the countries of the Middle East for a quarter century. The author examines in detail such an aspect of the topic as the peculiarities of the institutional foundations of cooperation between the Russian Federation and the countries of the Middle East in the field of culture in 1990-2000-ies. Particular attention is paid to the study of their dynamics in the studied period.

It is emphasized that a key role in the development of international cultural cooperation during the study period was played by central government bodies that solve the main tasks of state policy in this area, including monitoring the implementation of the state’s international obligations in the field of culture, coordinating international cultural relations and concluding relevant agreements.

The methodological base of the research is constituted by the principles of historicism, scientific objectivity, systematicity and complexity, which allow us to study the evolution of interstate cooperation in the cultural sphere.

The novelty of the study lies in the rethinking of the conceptual framework, as well as the conditions for cooperation between the Russian Federation and the countries of the Middle East in the field of culture in the studied period.

Key words: state policy, cultural cooperation, cultural relations, historical experience.

REVIEWS

REVIEW OF THE ARTICLE BY L. F. BOLTENKOVA AND N. P. MEDVEDEV «ETHNIC COMPONENT IN THE POLITICAL RELATIONS OF ANCIENT RUSSIA» PUBLISHED IN THE JOURNAL «ISSUES OF NATIONAL AND FEDERATIVE RELATIONS». 2019. Т. 9. № 6 (51)

Reviewers:

M.G. Ivanova Candidate of Sciences (philosophy), assistant at the Chair of political analysis and management, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

M.N. Moseikina Doctor of Sciences (history), Professor at the Chair of Russian history, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

D.E. Slizovskiy Doctor of Sciences (history), Professor at the Chair of Russian history, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

   
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