Scientific Journal “Issues of National and Federative Relations”. Volume 12. Issue 11 (92), 2022

CONTENTS

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

  • Gavrilov S.O., Kazmina M.V. Civil Proceedings in the Initial Period of the Formation of Soviet Statehood (1917 – Early 1920s)
  • Orlov V.V. Implementation of School Education Reforms in the 1950s – 1960s (on the Example of the Ulyanovsk Region)
  • Blokhin V.F. Periodical Press as an Indicator of Socio-Political Moods and Practices During the First World War
  • Bagautdinov R.O. School and School Education During the Great Patriotic War: Problems and their Solutions
  • Agarev A.F., Modin V.I. The Activity of the Ryazan City Council to Improve the Economic Indicators of Enterprises and Urban Economy in the Second Half of 1991 and Early 1992
  • Senova A.Yu., Akkievа S.I. Malaya Kabarda in the Administrative-Territorial System of the Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Region in 1920-1935
  • Stepanova O.B., Galeeva N.F., Sumin V.V., Riabitsev A.V. Selkups or Evenks: on the Ethnic Composition of the Population of Momchik
  • Belaya E.G. Preservation of Elements of the Traditional Culture of the Nanais (Materials of Expeditions 2019, 2021 of the Khabarovsk Territory)
  • Makedonsky A.V. Cultural Work at the Military Academy Named after M.V. Frunze in the 1930s
  • Perebinos Yu.A. Nationality and National Policy in Relation to the Cadres of the Party-Soviet Apparatus of the European North of Russia in the 1930s
  • Stepanova O.B., Tishchuk O.V., Smetanina R.E. The Funeral Rite of the Taz Selkups: New Data
  • Iliasov L.M. To the Question of the Transformation of Medieval Residential Buildings with Elements of Fortification in Mountainous Chechnya
  • Zakomaldin M.M. Russian Post-Revolutionary Emigration as a Historical and Cultural Phenomenon
  • Ivanov M.A. Guild Merchants of Russia. Legal Status and Socio-Legal Status
  • Antonov A.S. The Beginning of the Process of De-Sovietization of Local Self-Government in Ryazan – as a Result of the August Events of 1991
  • Panin S.V. The Role of the Synod in Conducting Election Campaigns of the Clergy to the State Duma
  • Stepanov A.S. Soviet Aviation at International Exhibitions in the Mid-1930s: a Look from Abroad

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

  • Boltenkova L.F. Hymn to the Lord God (Philosophical and Religious Research in Several Articles). Article Eleven
  • Grigoreva K.S. Securitization: Discourses, Practices and Social Magic

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

  • Ravochkin N.N. Import of Political and Legal Institutions: Problems and Search for Ways to Overcome (Part 3)
  • Kuznetsov I.M. Variation in the Content of the Patriotic Identity of Russians

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

  • Endryushko A.A. Immigrants with Children in Russia: Socio-Demographic Characteristics (Part I)

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

  • Solodova G.S. Geography as a Factor of Geopolitics (on the Example of Eurasia)
  • Terentyev V.I. Modern Graphic Systems of the Mongolian Language: Ethnic Symbol and Construction of National Identity
  • Nizamova M.A., Shaidullin I.I. Media as a Tool for the Implementation of "Soft Power": the Western Approach
  • Adan Mohamed Abdullahi, Bokeria S.A. The Practical Challenges of Amisom Exit Plan
  • Gu Xiaoyan. Analysis of Serbia's Policy Toward Russia and Europe
  • Tian Miao. Directions of China's International Project Activities Under Xi Jinping: a Brief Overview of the Main Issues
  • Kapustin A.S. Legislative Regulation of the Fight Against Terrorism in the United States and Israel
  • Rakhman A.H. Impact of the Armenian-Azerbaijani Conflict on the Security of the Caucasus
  • Oluwakayode Olumide Emmanuel, Mugabi Brian, Nwalie George Awele. Security Situation in Sub-Saharan Africa: Case Study of Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons

STUDENT SCIENCE

  • Dibirova S.Z. Civil Conflict in Syria: Ethno-Political Retrospective
  • Lavrov D.P. The Work of Parochial Schools and Charter Schools of the Tomsk Diocese on the Pages of the Official Department of the Tomsk Diocesan Gazette
  • Bakanina D.A., Baranova Y.V., Leonova A.A. Military-Political Cooperation Between Russia and Belarus in the Era of Global Crisis
  • Loktionova D.V., Myasnikov V.S., Stakhno E.V. Corrupt Activity as a threat to Internal Stability and Security of the Republic of Korea
  • Shirshova E.A., Steinfeld K.V. Changing the Legal and Social Protection of Military Personnel, from the Post-War Reform of N.S. Khrushchev to the Present
  • Volzhanin D.A., Serikbaeva A.D., Martsinkevich K.A. The Dynamics of the Kuril Question under Modern Japanese Prime Ministers

CONFERENCES

  • Saparbekova D.S. University Saturday at ISAA MSU

Our authors № 11-2022

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.001

S.O. GAVRILOV Doctor of historical sciences, candidate of legal sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of State and Administrative Law, Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo, Russia

M.V. KAZMINA Doctor of historical sciences, associate professor, Professor of the Department of the Theory and the History of Law, Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo, Russia

CIVIL PROCEEDINGS IN THE INITIAL PERIOD OF THE FORMATION OF SOVIET STATEHOOD (1917 – EARLY 1920S)

The subject of the study was the activities of the Bolshevik leadership of Russia in 1917 – early 1920s, aimed at creating the organizational and legal foundations of legal proceedings in civil cases by courts of general jurisdiction. The content of the first Soviet Decrees on the Court and the Regulations on the People's Court is considered. Based on the analysis of the Decrees, a feature of procedural legislation is established, which consists in the fact that the first Soviet legalizations did not differ in detailed legal regulation of civil proceedings and did not contain specific instructions on many fundamental issues, which could not but give rise to significant difficulties in the activities of local people's and arbitration courts to resolve civil disputes. This feature, according to the authors, forced the Bolshevik leadership to temporarily allow the use of some pre-revolutionary laws that were not formally repealed by the Bolshevik authorities, if they did not clearly contradict the proletarian sense of justice. The article analyzes the issues of participation in the legislative activities of representatives of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party. The dynamics of civil procedural legislation and the cause-and-effect conditionality of the constant reform of the normative foundations of the court system are considered. Attention is drawn to the inconsistency and gaps in the procedural legislation. The conclusion is formulated that the imperfection of courtpractice in civil cases was due not only to the lack of developed civil procedural legislation, a body designed to ensure the uniformity of court practice through guiding explanations, the lack of professional judges, but also the natural result of proletarian Marxist legal thinking, a negative attitude towards to the institution of private property and, consequently, to the very idea of protecting the property interests of persons considered as a socially alien element.

Key words: рeople's courts, district courts, arbitration courts, civil proceedings, Decrees on the court.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.002

V.V. ORLOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Vice-Rector for Science, Institute of Public Administration, Ulyanovsk, Russia

IMPLEMENTATION OF SCHOOL EDUCATION REFORMS IN THE 1950s – 1960s (on the example of the Ulyanovsk region)

The article examines the genesis of the formation of a new school education system in the USSR based on the materials of the Ulyanovsk region. During the period of scientific and technological progress, the role of a person endowed with work skills, professional training, and a scientific worldview increases. For all spheres of life – material, cultural, socio-political – the level of their education, culture, and civic responsibility plays an increasingly important role. The education system is a special sphere of human activity that affects the interests of every person, every family, the interests of the whole society, it is one of the most dynamic components of the modern world. Understanding of the most important role of education in the development of society leads to the fact that in the years since the Second World War, more laws, acts, and regulations concerning education have been adopted than in the entire previous history [1]. There were similar problems in the educational sphere of the period under study. In particular, the Law "On strengthening the connection of school with life and on the further development of the public education system in the USSR" [2] reflected and consolidated the idea of systemic reform of the Soviet school, as well as the strategy for the development of education, a number of provisions of which have not lost their significance today.

Key words: school, public education, reform, evening school, working youth, CPSU, Ulyanovsk region.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.003

V.F. BLOKHIN Doctor of History, Professor, Head of the Department of National History Bryansk State Academician I.G. Petrovski University, Bryansk, Russia

PERIODICAL PRESS AS AN INDICATOR OF SOCIO-POLITICAL MOODS AND PRACTICES DURING THE FIRST WORLD WAR

During the First World War, censorship was assigned the important role of controlling information that could benefit the enemy, and the periodical press deliberately limited itself to publications that could benefit the enemy. However, despite official and informal agreements on the part of censorship and the press, there were problems associated with the violation of the legally established order. The article, on the basis of archival documents, reveals the features of the functioning of military censorship and the press in war conditions, fills the gap in assessing not only the prohibitive practice of these relations, but also the options in which publications in the press should have contributed to solving foreign policy problems. The example considered in the article sheds light on the peculiarities of the diplomatic struggle around Bulgaria's entry into the war through the consideration of these issues in the Petrograd newspaper Rech.

Key words: World War I, periodicals, Temporary Regulations on Military Censorship, Main Directorate for Press Affairs, Russkoe Slovo newspaper, Rech newspaper, S.D. Sazonov, neutral countries.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.004

R.O. BAGAUTDINOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History of the Republic of Bashkortostan, Archeology and Ethnology of the Institute of History and Public Administration of Bashkir State University, Ufa, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russia

SCHOOL AND SCHOOL EDUCATION DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR: PROBLEMS AND THEIR SOLUTIONS

This article highlights the issues that affect the most important areas of state policy in the field of school education on the example of the Kuibyshev region. Changes concerning the material and technical equipment of schools and the state of the educational base are reflected. It also provides information on the number of schools, changes in the number of students, staffing with qualified teaching staff, educational activities of employees of educational institutions. The author also considers, on the basis of archival data, information on the state of work and education of national and Russian schools of the Ulyanovsk region for the first half of the 1945-1946 academic year. The state of school premises, their equipment with educational literature, visual aids is shown, the state of the level of education of students and teaching methods in national and Russian schools of the Ulyanovsk region is also considered.

Key words: the Great Patriotic War, local authorities, school, non-Russian schools, boarding schools, work status, academic performance, textbooks, visual aids.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.005

A.F. AGAREV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Russian History and Methods of Teaching History and Social Studies of Ryazan State University Named by S.A. Yesenin, Ryazan, Russia

V.I. MODIN Postgraduate student (Historical Science and Archeology, National History), Public relations specialist of the State Budgetary Institution of Culture of the Ryazan region "Museum of the History of the Youth Movement", Ryazan, Russia

THE ACTIVITY OF THE RYAZAN CITY COUNCIL TO IMPROVE THE ECONOMIC INDICATORS OF ENTERPRISES AND URBAN ECONOMY IN THE SECOND HALF OF 1991 AND EARLY 1992

The author focuses on the period between August 1991 and January 1992, when the socio-economic situation in Ryazan remained quite tense. The characteristic features of the new administration's efforts to solve urban problems are highlighted and described. The article analyzes the materials of the 9th session of the Ryazan City Council, held on February 25, 1992. It approved the city's budget for the 1st quarter of 1992 and the report on budget execution in 1990 and 1991. The article clarifies the features of the main policy directions of the City Council of People's Deputies on the food issue. The characteristic difficulties in the implementation of measures to support the economy of the region, as well as measures to ensure a stable economic situation in the region, are identified.

Key words: Ryazan, city, problems. food, socio-economic development, tax system, price liberalization, session of the regional Council of People's Deputies.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.006

A.Yu. SENOVA Postgraduate student of the Federal Scientific Center "Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center Russian Academy of Sciences (KBNTS RAS), Nalchik, Russia

S.I. AKKIEVА Doctor of historical sciences, leading researcher employee of the Institute for Humanitarian Research - branch of the Federal Scientific Center "Kabardino-Balkarian Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IGI KBNTs RAS), Nalchik, Russia

MALAYA KABARDA IN THE ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL SYSTEM OF THE KABARDINO-BALKARIAN AUTONOMOUS REGION IN 1920-1935

The article is devoted to the issues of the administrative-territorial structure of the Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Region in 1922-1935. Special attention is paid to Malaya Kabarda (Malo Kabarda district) in the administrative-territorial system, the reasons for its separation into a separate district and changes in its territory. In the 1920s, during the transformation of the administrative-territorial division of the Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Land management, many names of settlements in Malaya Kabarda were renamed, and new settlements also appeared. The author reveals the causes, consequences and features of administrative-territorial transformations in Malaya Kabarda during the period under study.

Key words: Malaya Kabarda, Nalchik district of the Terek region, Gorskaya ASSR, Kabardino-Balkarian Autonomous Region, administrative-territorial division, management.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.007

O.B. STEPANOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher at the Department of Siberia, Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (the Kunstkamera) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

N.F. GALEEVA Post-graduate student of the Institute of Ethnological Research named after A.I. R.G. Kuzeev Ufa Federal Research Center RAS, Ufa, Russia

V.V. SUMIN Deputy General Director of the Sverdlovsk Regional Museum of Local Lore for IT & PR, Yekaterinburg, Russia

A.V. RIABITSEV Candidate of Biological Sciences, Arctic Research Station, Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Urals Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Labytnangi, Russia

SELKUPS OR EVENKS: ON THE ETHNIC COMPOSITION OF THE POPULATION OF MOMCHIK

The aim of the study was to determine the ethnic composition of the population of Lake Momchik, located on the border of the Turukhansky district of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the Krasnoselkupsky district of the Tyumen region. At the beginning of the study, there were conflicting data on the presence of a Selkup cult object on the lake and the Evenk composition of the inhabitants of the village located next to it. The study used fieldwork methods, analysis, comparison, the method of historical retrospective and an integrated approach. The following conclusions were the result of the study. The population of Lake Momchik was originally, from the 17th century, Selkup. Ancient cult objects located on the shore of the lake were of Selkup origin. The Evenks appeared on the banks of Momchik almost 300 years later than the Selkups. During the century that the Evenks lived on the lake together with the Selkups, processes of intercultural influence took place here. The traditional culture of both the Selkups and the Evenks was subjected to the same Soviet unification.

Key words: Northern Selkups, Western Siberian Evenks, ethnic history, images of spirits, ethnic contacts, cultural influences.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.008

E.G. BELAYA Candidate of Historical Sciences, senior researcher at the Institute of History, archeology and ethnography of peoples Far East FEB RAS, Vladivostok, Russia

PRESERVATION OF ELEMENTS OF THE TRADITIONAL CULTURE OF THE NANAIS (MATERIALS OF EXPEDITIONS 2019, 2021 OF THE KHABAROVSK TERRITORY)

This article was prepared based on the results of expeditions to the Khabarovsk Territory in 2019, 2021 in the Belgo national settlement, Verkhnyaya Ekon (Komsomolsky district), the village of Kondon (Solnechny district). Field expeditionary work was carried out with fixing the results in the form of individual observation diaries, photo, video shooting, analysis of empirical and documentary material on the cultural development of the Nanais in national settlements. The problem that is relevant: the study of continuity and the current state as an important element in the preservation of the traditional culture of the Nanai people.

The preservation and revival of the national traditions of indigenous peoples is formed directly by appealing to national traditions, spiritual values, through national pedagogy. On the basis of the revealed material, the author singled out the specifics of national self-consciousness, the peculiarities of ethnic elements in the upbringing of children in a school, preschool educational institution. The school program was studied using such forms of work with children as: national holidays, festivals, exhibitions of arts and crafts.

Excursions at school museums with a demonstration of items from the collections are undoubtedly important in relaying the Nanai culture, when introducing children to the culture of their native people.

Modern instruments are considered as Nanai dances, national games, sports, folklore, through which it is possible to learn the experience of generations in the development of a modern standard, prompting the desire to know, to preserve becomes the bearer of their traditions.

For our study, the most interesting were the works where the peculiarity, the role in the educational process of the younger generation are indicated. Among the researchers who collected information about the customs and traditions of the Nanais, I.A. Lopatin, Yu.A. Sema, L.I. Shrenk, V.I. Prokopenko, V.Ch. Beldy, P.Ya. Gontmakher, N.B. Kile, M.Ya. Zhornitskaya, S.F. Karabanova, O.V. Maltsev, V.V. Podmaskin, L.E. Fetisov.

Key words: Nanais, national education, traditions, education, culture, rituals, current state.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.009

A.V. MAKEDONSKY Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Social and Humanitarian Disciplines State University of Land Use Planning, Moscow, Russia

CULTURAL WORK AT THE MILITARY ACADEMY NAMED AFTER M.V. FRUNZE IN THE 1930S

The article is devoted to the analysis of cultural and mass work among students of one of the main military educational institutions of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army – the Military Academy named after M.V. Frunze, as well as members of their families in the 1930s. On the basis of unpublished archival materials, the scale and versatility of this work are shown. The means, forms and methods of mass cultural work in this direction are considered, achievements and shortcomings are identified. It is emphasized that commanders, political agencies, political workers, party and Komsomol organizations paid close attention to improving mass cultural work at the academy. The conclusion says that this work leaves a contradictory impression, because along with successes in the process of its implementation, there were some shortcomings.

Key words: Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army, cultural and mass work, amateur performances, Military Academy named after M.V. Frunze, listeners and members of their families.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.010

O.B. STEPANOVA PhD in History, Senior Researcher of the Department of Siberia,Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) RAS, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

O.V. TISHCHUK Chief curator of Purovsky Regional Museum of Local History, Tarko-Sale, Russia

R.E. SMETANINA Researcher of Purovsky Regional Museum of Local History, Tarko-Sale, Russia

THE FUNERAL RITE OF THE TAZ SELKUPS: NEW DATA

The article considered the Selkup rite of greeting/commemoration of the dead, performed by a person who arrived after a long absence in his native village. The rite refers to the unknown elements of the funeral ritual complex of the Taz Selkups and is a cultural influence. The study provides descriptions of a number of unexplored components of the Selkup burial tradition, identified with the help of informants during a visit to the cemetery during the ceremony. Among them are data on the burial places of children, murdered disabled people, the rules for accepting sacrificial memorial food, the attitude of the living to the photograph of the deceased, sacrificial butts, etc. The study also noted new components of the tradition.

Key words: Taz Selkups, funeral rite, ceremony of greeting/commemoration of the dead, traditional Selkup worldview, cultural influences and innovations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.011

YU.A. PEREBINOS PhD in History, Associate Professor, Associate Professor, the Chair of State Legal Disciplines, Vologda Institute of Law and Economics of the Federal Penal Service of Russia, Vologda, Russia

NATIONALITY AND NATIONAL POLICY IN RELATION TO THE CADRES OF THE PARTY-SOVIET APPARATUS OF THE EUROPEAN NORTH OF RUSSIA IN THE 1930S

This article is devoted to the state policy regarding the national composition of the leadership of the party-Soviet apparatus of Soviet Russia in the 1930s, the national composition of officials of regional authorities. The study was conducted on the materials of the European North of Russia. Archival sources and published materials are involved in the work on the article. The publication indicates that in the pre-war decades, the policy of the country's top leadership on this issue went through several stages and underwent significant changes. If in the 1920s ethnic diversity of personnel was allowed and encouraged, then the 1930s, on the contrary, were marked by the displacement of non-Russian cadres from the management system at all levels. Russians predominate in the composition of the party-Soviet apparatus of the European North of Russia in the 1930s due to the overwhelming Russian local population, from which the regional leadership cadres were mainly recruited. The Center's policy towards national leadership personnel in the 1930s is characterized by a tendency towards ethnic uniformity, the desire to make Russians a titular nation in the field of governance, which, it seems, was caused by the need to consolidate the ruling stratum in the conditions of forced socialist modernization and preparation for the upcoming war. The repressions of the second half of the 1930s against non-Russian officials in the territory of the European North of Russia contributed to a significant decrease in the share of their representation in the party-Soviet apparatus of the region.

Key words: Soviet Russia, European North of Russia, national policy, party and Soviet apparatus, Soviet and party officials, 1930s.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.012

L.M. ILIASOV Candidate of Philology, Doctoral student, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Science, Moscow, Russia

TO THE QUESTION OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF MEDIEVAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS WITH ELEMENTS OF FORTIFICATION IN MOUNTAINOUS CHECHNYA

The article is devoted to the transformation of medieval fortified residential buildings in mountainous Chechnya, which was due to the development of building technologies of folk architecture, as well as changes in socio-economic conditions. The author believes that in the XIV-XV centuries after the invasion of Timur and the collapse of the Golden Horde, life in the mountainous regions of the North Caucasus became very dangerous and led to the active construction of fortified dwellings, which, while remaining a residential building, acquired all the signs of a fortification: vertical planning, impregnability, machicolations, the maximum use of all defensive capabilities. According to the author, the assumption that the so-called semi-combat tower is an intermediate link between a residential and combat tower is not true, since both types of structures date back to cyclopean buildings. After the mass resettlement of Chechens on the plane in the XVI-XVII centuries. The need for the construction of a fortified dwelling disappeared and led to its transformation from a multi-storey structure with a vertical layout into an ordinary two-storey stone house with outbuildings.

Key words: medieval architecture, residential towers, semi-combat towers, combat towers, fortification elements, cyclopean buildings, stone house.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.013

M.M. ZAKOMALDIN Senior Lecturer, Department of Social, Humanitarian and Economic Sciences, Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Ufa, Russia

RUSSIAN POST-REVOLUTIONARY EMIGRATION AS A HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL PHENOMENON

The article is devoted to the problems of Russian post-revolutionary emigration. From the standpoint of the historical approach, the features of the Russian post-revolutionary emigration are considered, its characteristic features are revealed. On the example of the formation of Russian diasporas in Central and South-Eastern Europe, the reconstruction and preservation of the "centers" of pre-revolutionary spiritual life is recorded. Particular attention is paid to the history of the eastern branch of the Russian emigration, which has made a significant contribution to the preservation of the cultural heritage and the enhancement of the spiritual potential of Russian culture. As a result of a historical analysis of the activities of the Russian post-revolutionary emigration, it has been established that over the course of two decades the appearance of the Russian post-revolutionary abroad has changed significantly, differences have appeared not only in the field of customs, habits, interests, views, but also in language.

Key words: Russian post-revolutionary abroad, emigration, Russian heritage, cultural space, Russian diasporas.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.014

M.A. IVANOV Lecturer of the Department of Complex Humanities of the Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

GUILD MERCHANTS OF RUSSIA. LEGAL STATUS AND SOCIO-LEGAL STATUS

This article is devoted to the study of the process of evolution of the social and legal status of the Russian merchant class. Based on the characteristics of legislative sources, the main stages of its formation are distinguished. It is concluded that, on the one hand, the state policy towards the merchants was aimed at improving their legal status. On the other hand, throughout the entire period, the merchants were used as a fiscal source, which inevitably worsened their professional position.

Key words: merchant class, estate, guild, capitalism, entrepreneurship.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.015

A.S. ANTONOV Postgraduate student (Historical Science and Archeology, National History), Public relations specialist of The State Budgetary Institution of Culture of the Ryazan region "Museum of the History of the Youth Movement", Ryazan, Russia

THE BEGINNING OF THE PROCESS OF DE-SOVIETIZATION OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN RYAZAN – AS A RESULT OF THE AUGUST EVENTS OF 1991

This article deals with the events of August 1991, when it became known about the establishment of a state of emergency in the country and the formation of the State Emergency Committee (hereinafter – the State Emergency Committee). Special attention is paid to the confrontation between the Ryazan Regional Council headed by L.I. Khitrun and the Ryazan City Council headed by its chairman, Deputy of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR V.V. Ryumin. This problem has been little studied and requires further research. Based on the study of the materials of the extraordinary sessions of the Regional Council held on August 21, 1991 in the village of Turlatovo, and the City Council on August 28, 1991 in Ryazan, the events that took place are reconstructed, which allow us to recreate the true historical picture of the political struggle in the Ryazan region.

Key words: the law, the Ryazan Regional Council, the City Council, deputies. Supreme Council, RSFSR, local government, decree, President, culture, health, education.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.016

S.V. PANIN Postgraduate student of the Department of National History Institute for the Humanities of the Moscow City Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

THE ROLE OF THE SYNOD IN CONDUCTING ELECTION CAMPAIGNS OF THE CLERGY TO THE STATE DUMA

Within the framework of this article, the analysis of the election campaigns of the members of the Russian Ortodox Church to the State Duma and the role of the Holy Synod in this process is carried out. In most cases, the state body independently selected candidates from the Russian Ortodox Church, imposed strict requirements on their deputy activities, used clerical deputies to realize their own interests (for example, financing their activities). However, the main goal of the Synod to participate in the election campaigns of representatives of the Russian Ortodox Church was to build a clerical bloc that would act as an independent force in the State Duma, and not be influenced by political parties opposed to the state. Such a goal fully met the interests of the government, the Russian Ortodox Church and the Synod.

Key words: history of Russia, Russian Orthodox Church, State Duma, electoral process, Holy Synod.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.017

A.S. STEPANOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Research Center (of fundamental military-historical problems) Prince Alexander Nevsky Military University Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

SOVIET AVIATION AT INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITIONS IN THE MID-1930S: A LOOK FROM ABROAD

This article is devoted to the review and analysis of foreign assessments from among various materials published in foreign periodicals about Soviet aviation during its rapid growth in the mid-1930s. First of all, publications in foreign periodicals were associated with the demonstration of Soviet aircraft during aviation exhibitions in France and Italy. An analysis of these materials, published, among other things, in various issues of the influential emigrant newspaper Vozrozhdenie, shows that they reflected not only the enormous efforts and achievements of the Soviet country in the development of the air fleet and the aviation industry, but also numerous and serious existing missile defense.

Key words: aviation, pilot, aviator, exhibition, air force, achievements, criticism, expert, politics, Soviet Union, Red Army, emigration.

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.018

L.F. BOLTENKOVA Doctor of Sciences (law), Professor, Moscow, Russia

HYMN TO THE LORD GOD (PHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS RESEARCH IN SEVERAL ARTICLES) ARTICLE ELEVEN

Starting from the content of the Constitutional norm about God (part 2 of Article 67.1 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation) and analyzing the provisions of the Bible, religious-theological and philosophical literature, the author reveals the concepts of God, Hymn to the Lord God and forms of God glorification. Considering these concepts, the process of glorifying God is investigated.

Key words: God, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Bible, Hymn, thank the Lord God.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.019

K.S. GRIGOREVA Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Senior Researcher, Institute of Sociology of FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

SECURITIZATION: DISCOURSES, PRACTICES AND SOCIAL MAGIC

Discussion about what is primary in the process of securitization – discourses or practices – has taken place for over 20 years. The established traditions of securitization research lead to a separate analysis of discourses and practices, even in those works where attempts are made to combine the two competing approaches. At that, “discourses” refers to a very wide variety of public political statements, while “practices” mainly refers to the strategies of security professionals. For a deeper understanding of securitization processes, it is necessary to narrow the focus of the research to securitizing performatives of the first-order and the securitizing practices related to them. This approach will allow the focus to be placed on those political statements that are really capable of changing social reality, the overcoming of the artificially established border in the study of discourses and practices, the analysis of institutional mechanisms of securitization.

Key words: securitization, Pierre Bourdieu, symbolic power, performative speech acts, securitizing practices.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.020

N.N. RAVOCHKIN Dr. in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Associate Professor at the Department of History, Philosophy and Social Sciences, Kuzbass State Technical University named after T.F. Gorbachev; Associate Professor of the Department of Pedagogical Technologies, Kuzbass State Agricultural Academy Kemerovo, Russia

IMPORT OF POLITICAL AND LEGAL INSTITUTIONS: PROBLEMS AND SEARCH FOR WAYS TO OVERCOME (PART 3)

Evolutionary scenarios for the development of the modern world system are closely related to the peculiarities of the functioning of political and legal structures that focus on solving a number of tasks, including with the participation of other institutions of one or another national institutional architectonics. Today, the main markers constituting the world image are "non-linearity" and "riskness", which, however, have reverse sides in the form of "complexity" and "chance", respectively. Changes in political and legal structures always bring great opportunities for states and are able to offer the most valid interpretations of ongoing processes. In the third part of the study, the specifics of the functioning of intelligent networks, which are, in fact, the subjects of generating ideas for the institutional development of national countries, are considered. The transboundary and transhistorical nature of ideas is emphasized. It is shown that modern intellectuals can form networks literally all over the world and create an inexhaustible supply of advanced institutional models for subsequent implementation by actors on national soil. Separately, the need to take into account contextual realities, about which ideas are inevitably refracted, was noted. In conclusion, the results are summed up and a panorama of future research is outlined.

Key words: power, society, political and legal institution, import, intellectual, idea.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.021

I.M. KUZNETSOV Candidate of Sociology, Leading Researcher, of the Center for the Study Interethnic Relations, Institute of Sociology of the FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

VARIATION IN THE CONTENT OF THE PATRIOTIC IDENTITY OF RUSSIANS

The article presents the results of a study of the variability of the content of Russian patriotic identity. Both the variability of the content of the concept "Russia is our country" and the variability of the image of the "ideal patriot of Russia" were studied. The empirical base of the study was the data of the 2020 surveys. According to the results of the study of the content of the image of Russia, it was found that only a third of the respondents associate the country with their homeland, fatherland and state. For about a quarter of the respondents, Russia is associated with the Motherland, but not with the state. And a third of those who answered in the image of Russia have no idea of Motherland.

The features and foundations of group identification characteristic of patriotic identity (i.e., the image of a “real” patriot of Russia) were studied in two dimensions – civil and protective. The civil dimension of patriotism is the belief in the need to know and maintain the history and culture of one's country, its traditions and customs of interaction, the importance of activities for the good of the country. The protective dimension is made up of dispositions emphasizing the importance of protecting the historically established value-cultural system from various kinds of external influences. We also considered two types of complexes of patriotic beliefs that are most characteristic of Russia in 2020. This is a convinced type of patriotism, characterized by full support for both civil and protective meanings, and a moderate type, when civil meanings are more likely to be supported and not supported (or rather not supported) protective meanings of patriotism. In general, it was concluded that convinced patriots significantly differ from moderates in their systemic conservative, traditionalist orientations.

Key words: patriotic identity, blind patriotism, constructive patriotism, civic patriotism, protective patriotism, socio-political dispositions.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.022

А.A. ENDRYUSHKO Candidate of sociological sciences, Junior Research Fellow of the Sector for studying migration and integration processes, Institute of Sociology of the FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

IMMIGRANTS WITH CHILDREN IN RUSSIA: SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS (Part I)

Russia is the center of attraction for migration flows from the post-Soviet states. In addition to the migrants themselves, members of their families, including minor children, are included in cross-border movements. Limited statistical information does not allow us to determine the proportion of migrants with children in Russia and draw up a portrait of this group. Meanwhile, a review of studies shows that children act as a link between adult immigrants and the host society, forcing parents to contact a large number of social institutions, intensifying integration processes. This article is the first part of a text devoted to immigrants with children in Russia, which examines their socio-demographic characteristics. The empirical basis of the study is the data of surveys of migrants from post-Soviet countries in the Russian Federation: 2017 (8577 respondents, of which 411 live in the Russian Federation with children, from 1 to 5 for each respondent, 2699 left children at home); 2020 (700 respondents, of which 108 took one or more children with them on migration, 212 left them in the country of origin). The data show that in the Russian situation, when migrating with children, we more often deal with a complete family (at least a nuclear one), as a rule, being on a long-term migration and planning to link their lives with the receiving country. In the second part, which will be published in the next issue, we will consider various aspects of the integration of immigrants living in the Russian Federation with minor children.

Key words: immigrants, work migration, children of migrants, family migration, integration of migrants.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.023

G.S. SOLODOVA Institute of Philosophy and Law of the Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences; Siberian State University of Telecommunications and Information Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russia

GEOGRAPHY AS A FACTOR OF GEOPOLITICS (ON THE EXAMPLE OF EURASIA)

Some time ago, there were active discussions in the scientific community about the reasons for the rise and dominance of European civilization in modern times. Back in the 15th century, Europe was a peripheral region. Jerusalem is at the center of the Hereford map of the world, a classic map of the Middle Ages created by the British at the end of the thirteenth century. England and other Western countries on the periphery. The world leaders in science, trade and navigation were the countries of the East and Asia. At the same time, the political, military, technological and economic dominance of Western Europe in modern times is beyond doubt. A non-idle question arises about the origins of the transformations that have taken place. Its significance is determined by the possibility of predicting potential macrosocial changes. The article is based on an analysis of the causes of Western European dominance in the interpretation of Jared Diamond. Another important source was the work of Robert Kaplan, as well as the previous author, who works in the «macrohistory» format.

Key words: scholasticism, biological determinism, religious ethics, geographical determinism, geographical politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.024

V.I. TERENTYEV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Independent Researcher, Kyakhta, Russia

MODERN GRAPHIC SYSTEMS OF THE MONGOLIAN LANGUAGE: ETHNIC SYMBOL AND CONSTRUCTION OF NATIONAL IDENTITY

This article discusses the current Mongolian language graphics and their influence on the national identity of the modern Mongolian population. Three «National programs of the Mongolian script», the Mongolian Law «On the national language» and the «National program for the Latin alphabet» are analyzed sequentially. There is a phonetic discrepancy between the Mongolian language on the basis of Cyrillic and on the basis of traditional Mongolian writing. It is concluded that a complete transition to vertical writing is practically impossible under the current conditions. More realistic is the joint parallel official coexistence of Cyrillic and vertical writing. Traditional writing in the long term will remain the lot of a limited circle of linguists and calligraphers. The joint use of the two writing systems neutralizes all the early anti-Cyrillic and anti-Soviet-Russian background of the transition to the Mongolian script.

Key words: Mongolia, Mongolian script, graphics, Mongols, ethnic symbol, national identity, nationalism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.025

M.A. NIZAMOVA Lecturer, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

I.I. SHAIDULLIN Assistant, Kazan Federal University, Kazan, Russia

MEDIA AS A TOOL FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF "SOFT POWER": THE WESTERN APPROACH

In the academic environment, most attention is paid to the use of hard power rather than soft power, however, in the conditions of the modern multipolar world, taking into account the influence of the infosphere, we cannot underestimate the ambitions and efforts of politicians in the field of "soft power". Over the past decade, the media have become firmly entrenched in the foreign policy strategy of states, and governments have actively used their own version of strategic persuasion in their attempts to gain support in the international arena. One of the most important communication spaces in which the concept of soft power is implemented is media. Of course, the media are not the only area of application of the soft power policy, but in terms of the number of signs of speech impact, they bypass other means of information.

Key words: soft power, mass media, international relations, information policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.026

ADAN MOHAMED ABDULLAHI PhD student, People’s Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Mogadishu, Somalia

S.A. BOKERIA Assoc., Candidate of Law, People’s Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

THE PRACTICAL CHALLENGES OF AMISOM EXIT PLAN

Insecurity in Somalia has continued to evade the reach of the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM). It is evident due to the challenges encountered between AMISOM and difficult cooperation with the Somalian security personnel. However, Somalia's political elites have struggled to reach a political agreement outlining plans to establish a competent national defence force. The African Union (AU) and AMISOM's international allies have aggravated the situation by neglecting to provide critical capabilities to the mission. Furthermore, AMISOM's credibility in Somalis has suffered due to Somalia's neighbouring states' increased involvement within the operation. These failures have jeopardized AMISOM personnel and the mission's performance and hopes for Somalia's stabilization. The article aims to elaborate on AMISOM's issues while considering a departure strategy in order to obtain a better grasp of the mission's current situation.

Key words: Somalia, United Nations, African Union, AMISOM, Al-Shabaab.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.027

GU XIAOYAN Russian Teacher, Liaocheng University, Liaocheng, China

ANALYSIS OF SERBIA'S POLICY TOWARD RUSSIA AND EUROPE

An analysis of the influence of group sentiments on Serbia's Russian-European policy preferences will provide insight into how the Serbian government shapes group sentiments to facilitate timely changes in national policy preferences, as well as to protect and expand national interests. For Russia and Europe, understanding Serbia's flexible use of group sentiment will enable the EU, on the one hand, to better understand the reasons for Serbia's slow Europeanization and, on the other hand, to understand how Russia manages to maintain long-term relations with Serbia at little cost by using group sentiment toward Serbia. The analysis focuses on the current international context that influences the formulation of Serbia's foreign relations, and that Serbia's foreign policy choices are the result of a combination of historical reasons, national character and geopolitical factors.

Key words: group sentiment, foreign policy preferences, Serbia, Europeanization, foreign policy choices, retreat from west to east, geopolitics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.028

TIAN MIAO Graduate student, Faculty of Humanities and Social Science, RUDN, Moscow, Russia

DIRECTIONS OF CHINA'S INTERNATIONAL PROJECT ACTIVITIES UNDER XI JINPING: A BRIEF OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN ISSUES

International activity during the reign of Xi Jinping is based on a number of principles: to develop Chinese society, to achieve a certain economic well-being, to improve the current state policy in general, to improve external economic cooperation in order to implement the policy of openness of the Chinese state.

Based on the results of the review of some projects and the main tasks being implemented, indicating the list of countries, a conclusion is made about the productivity of Xi Jinping's policy.

Key words: China, foreign policy, international relations, geopolitics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.029

A.S. KAPUSTIN Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

LEGISLATIVE REGULATION OF THE FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISM IN THE UNITED STATES AND ISRAEL

The author analyzes the legislative support of the United States and Israel in the field of countering international terrorism. The states in question are experienced players in countering terrorism in the context of its rapid transformation and evolution.

The purpose of the study is to identify similarities and fundamental differences in the legislative support of the United States and Israel in the approaches to counteracting terrorism.

To achieve this goal, the author identified the basic principles that guide the United States and Israel in the fight against terrorism, as well as identified the main regulations, within which the goals, objectives and their performers are outlined.

The study was conducted by the method of comparative analysis. The data is collected from regulatory legal acts and scientific research.

The result of the study was the identification of fundamental differences and common features in the regulatory and legal regulation of countering terrorism of the states of the United States and Israel.

Key words: terrorism, USA, Israel, legislation, national security, counter-terrorism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.030

А.H. RAKHMAN Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

IMPACT OF THE ARMENIAN-AZERBAIJANI CONFLICT ON THE SECURITY OF THE CAUCASUS

The article deals with the security issues of the post-Soviet space in the context of the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict, which in 2020 moved out of its frozen phase. The purpose of this study is to identify threats to Russia's foreign policy influence and the stability of the South Caucasus region. During the study, methods of historical and comparative analysis, content analysis and a number of other general scientific methods were used. On the basis of the analysis, the author proves that the government of the Russian Federation should come up with the initiative for a peaceful settlement of the conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan, as only Russia has all the necessary modern instruments for ensuring regional security in the post-Soviet space.

Key words: Nagorno-Karabakh, Artsakh, post-Soviet space, CSTO, EAEU, TSFSR.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.031

OLUWAKAYODE OLUMIDE EMMANUEL PhD student, People’s Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University) Abuja, Nigeria

MUGABI BRIAN PhD student, People’s Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University) Kampala, Uganda

NWALIE GEORGE AWELE PhD student, People’s Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University) Delta, Nigeria

SECURITY SITUATION IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: CASE STUDY OF PROLIFERATION OF SMALL ARMS AND LIGHT WEAPONS

The destiny of Africa’s development is inextricably connected to the continent’s capability to shoulder complete responsibility for its peace and security issues, to which the African Union (AU) leads in. Unfortunately, the extensive and unregulated movement of arms has consistently posed a problem for the institution and its member countries. The AU and its associated sub-regional institutions have implemented a variety of strategies and approaches to coordinate their activities with international policies, but Africa has yet to reap the full benefits of these policies. Due to the changing pattern and easy access to SALWs, this article examines the impact of SALWs in the sub-regions, investigates certain determinants such as artisan manufacturers, demand, and supply, and makes recommendations for reinforcing existing efforts.

Key words: Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALWs), Sub-Saharan Africa, AU, Non-State actors, Coups, Terrorism.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.032

S.Z. DIBIROVA Student of the Vladimir State University named after Alexander Grigorievich and Nikolai Grigorievich Stoletov, Vladimir, Russia

CIVIL CONFLICT IN SYRIA: ETHNO-POLITICAL RETROSPECTIVE

This article examines the power and ethno-confessional roots of the problems of the civil conflict in Syria, the impact of its retrospection on the further ethnopolitical environment of the SAR.

It is worth noting that ethnic and confessional problems persist, especially in the context of the decline in the effectiveness of the Arab socialist paradigm and the popularization of fundamentalist sentiments.

In the context of the outbreak of civil conflict, the demand for the unreality of the violent domination of one group over another became impossible.

At the same time, apart from the physical damage caused to cultural identity in the course of political-military contradictions, the question of morality arises when, for the sake of personal security, it is necessary to relate oneself to the prevailing majority. This trend is realized in traditional states in principle, but in the Arab countries in recent years it has risen. And Syria is no exception.

Key words: civil war, ethnopolitics, Alavism, Sunnism, Syria, Bashar al-Assad.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.033

D.P. LAVROV Master student, Moscow Church Academy; priest of Russian Orthodox Church, Vladimir, Russia

THE WORK OF PAROCHIAL SCHOOLS AND CHARTER SCHOOLS OF THE TOMSK DIOCESE ON THE PAGES OF THE OFFICIAL DEPARTMENT OF THE TOMSK DIOCESAN GAZETTE

The article reveals the role of the church publication in the distribution of parochial schools and literacy schools in the territory of Tomsk province, which can be traced on the pages of the journal "Tomsk Diocesan Gazette" (1880-1917), the main printing organ of the Tomsk diocese. The study shows how actively the editorial board of the Tomsk Diocesan Gazette took part in the creation of church schools. The editors and staff of the magazine published programs on the educational process, gave advice on opening schools in the provinces of the Tomsk province. From the publications in the official department of the Tomsk Diocese, the stories of the creation of church schools and literacy schools are visible. The study shows the role of His Eminence Makarii (Nevsky), Archbishop of Tomsk, in the enlightenment of the flock entrusted to him. Vladyka closely followed the work and creation of church schools, the educational process of pupils and in his words drew the attention of teachers to monitor the moral component of the educational process. This article presents a visual analysis of this phenomenon. While working on the article, an integrated approach, a descriptive method, a general scientific dialectical method of studying and analyzing social phenomena was applied, which in turn includes the principles of historicism, consistency, and objectivity. The results obtained will allow us to see the great role of the editors and staff of the Tomsk Diocesan Gazette in educating the people of the Tomsk province and creating church schools on its territory. This research can be useful in works on the history and local lore of the Tomsk Region, as well as clergy and teachers on the creation of church schools in the parish.

Key words: Tomsk eparchial journal, parochial schools, school, teacher, college.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.034

D.A. BAKANINA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

Y.V. BARANOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. LEONOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

MILITARY-POLITICAL COOPERATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND BELARUS IN THE ERA OF GLOBAL CRISIS

In modern international conditions, there is a positive dynamics of integration processes between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Belarus, including in the military-technical sphere. This paper examines the military-political cooperation between Moscow and Minsk within the framework of bilateral and multilateral dimensions, including the Union State and the Collective Security Treaty Organization. The article also raises the question of the future prospects of Russian-Belarusian relations in the military-political sphere based on the analysis of the events of this year in the context of the global crisis.

Key words: Russia, Belarus, military-political cooperation, Union State, Russian-Belarusian integration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.035

D.V. LOKTIONOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

V.S. MYASNIKOV Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

E.V. STAKHNO Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

CORRUPT ACTIVITY AS A THREAT TO INTERNAL STABILITY AND SECURITY OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA

Corrupt activities have always been a threat to the security and stability of any state. Such a strong actor in the Asia-Pacific region as the Republic of Korea, which loudly declares itself in the international arena and whose market is attractive in the interstate economic environment, of course, is no exception.

In this article, the author approaches the phenomenon of corruption as one of the non-traditional, new and current threats to the economic and legal security of the Republic of Korea. The study examines the features of Korean anti-corruption legislation, examines individual cases from the economic past of this state, and also pays attention to the impact that the traditional oriental trends of Korean society have on the domestic economy of the country and the spread of corruption in it.

Key words: anti-corruption activities, corruption, economy, threat, Republic of Korea, legislation, economic policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.036

E.A. SHIRSHOVA Student Ishim Pedagogical Institute named after P.P. Ershov (branch), Tyumen State University, Ishim, Russia

K.V. STEINFELD Student Ishim Pedagogical Institute named after P.P. Ershov (branch), Tyumen State University, Ishim, Russia

CHANGING THE LEGAL AND SOCIAL PROTECTION OF MILITARY PERSONNEL, FROM THE POST-WAR REFORM OF N.S. KHRUSHCHEV TO THE PRESENT

The article examines the issues of transformations in the Armed Forces of the USSR in the post-war period caused by foreign policy changes and domestic political realities that affected the social and economic situation of the country, as well as pointed to the positive aspects of reform and identified certain problems of military changes. The objective and subjective factors of the reform and their effectiveness are considered separately, the ill-considered military reform in social terms is justified, caused by the lack of proper provision for dismissed military personnel, and a historical analysis of military transformations, starting from 1950 and ending in 2022, where positive changes in terms of legal and social protection of military personnel and those discharged from military service, over time. The positive significance of the reform for the development and improvement of the army, equipment and ammunition is also presented separately.

Key words: military reform, reduction of military personnel, social adaptation, legal protection of the dismissed, Ministry of Defense, Armed Forces, N.S. Khrushchev, universal military duty, "Effective army".

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.037

D.A. VOLZHANIN Student of Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.D. SERIKBAEVA Student of Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

K.A. MARTSINKEVICH Student of Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE DYNAMICS OF THE KURIL QUESTION UNDER MODERN JAPANESE PRIME MINISTERS

Russian-Japanese relations went through a thorny path to be formed. By developing joint projects in a variety of areas and solving common problems, the two countries have managed to reach consensus in many ways. But there is one of the few issues that Moscow and Tokyo need to resolve and that remains as a point of the agenda.

The issue of ownership of the Kuril Islands of Kunashir, Shikotan, Iturup and the Habomai chain, as well as the absence of a peace treaty between the countries, make it impossible to move toward closer contact. Japan's highest echelons of power, the prime ministers, proclaim their intentions to resolve the problem each time they come to power, but to this day the issue remains open.

This paper examines the historical context of Russian-Japanese relations over the Kuril question. In addition, we analyze the policy of the Japanese prime ministers with regard to the disputed territories. The reasons of impossibility to solve the problem in the foreseeable future are also studied.

Key words: Kuril question, Russia-Japan relations, Kuril Islands, disputed territories, Shinzo Abe, Yoshihide Suga, Fumio Kishida.

CONFERENCES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.92.11.038

D.S. SAPARBEKOVA Graduate student of the faculty of journalism Russian Academy of National Economy and public service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

UNIVERSITY SATURDAY AT ISAA MSU

   
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