Scientific Journal “Issues of National and Federative Relations”. Volume 12. Issue 6 (87), 2022

CONTENTS

DOMESTIC HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

  • Golovinov A.V., Golovinovа Yu.V. Socio-Political Ideas of the Siberian Democratic Regionalists (Oblastnikov) in the Publicists of the 1870s.
  • Aliskhanova M.H., Bakanaev R.S. On the Issue of Toponyms in Chechen Folklore (Based on the Materials of the Heroic Epic)
  • Pasilov B.A., Otarbaeva G.K. Socio-Economic Policy of the Soviet Authorities of the Bukhara and Khorezm Soviet Republics in the Conditions of the NEP (1921-1924)
  • Rakunov V.A. The Doctrine "Moscow – the Third Rome" and Challenges of the Modern Geopolitical Situation
  • Goerlitz H. Economic Interaction Between Russia and Germany and its Regulation by State Authorities
  • Allanyazov M.B. State Personnel Training in Amudarya Region and Khorezm
  • Dzharchyev T.M. On Water Supply and Purification of Towns in the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Yugra in 1992-2020
  • Mitrofanov I.I. Reorganization of the Print Media of the Ryazan Region in the Initial Period of the Great Patriotic War
  • Panin S.V. Church-State Relations in the Russian Empire at the Beginning of the XX Century
  • Shchukin A.A. The Activities of Yuri Luzhkov as Mayor of Moscow in the 1990s

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

  • Boltenkova L.F. Hymn to the Lord God (Philosophical and Religious Research in Several Articles). Part Six
  • Boyko N.S., Loshakov A.V., Chernenkaya E.V. Solving the Problem of Reducing the Values of Matrixity and Parentity on the Basis of Improving the Educational Resource of the Country: History and Modernity
  • Zyong Wan Lin. Politics and Factors Influencing the Process of Political Socialization
  • Maslov K.V. The Problem of the Concept of "State" in Political Science
  • Toropov E.A. Historical and Political Context of the Birth of Anarcho-Capitalism

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

  • Hao Long. Political Analysis of the Elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation in 2021: a Chinese View
  • Burov A.S. Discourse of Indigenous Peoples of the North During the Implementation of Technologies of Political Destabilization. Points of Tension, Goal and Tasks
  • Krivova A.L. Youth Policy in the Russian Federation: forms of Implementation, Problems and Development Priorities
  • Sadykov R.R. The Importance of Education for the Prevention of Armed Conflict in Society
  • Khabarov I.A. Political "Urban Landscape": the Space of Physical and Practical Entrepreneurial Development of the Locality

POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGIES

  • Lushkina K.V. Language Policy in the Sphere of Education on Mari Language in the Republic of Mari El
  • Jitaek Jo. Perspectives of Corruption in Contemporary Studies

POLITICAL REGIONALISTICS AND ETHNOPOLICY

  • Musaev G.N. The Army as a Tool for Combating Ethno-Political Conflicts. The Experience of Socio-Political Research

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

  • Zolotareva A.N., Afonin M.V., Belyaeva V.P. Features of Digital Regulation in State Migration Policy
  • Makarov E.P., Kurochkin M.V. The Pontiac War as a Background Factor in the Development of the North American Colonial Policy of Great Britain
  • Rodionova M.E., Eremenko I.V. Analysis of the Election Campaigns of Western Leaders in 2020: PR-Technologies and Practices (on the Example of the USA)
  • Khanaliev N.U. The Phenomenon of the Head of Chechnya Ramzan Kadyrov in Promoting International Peace and Security
  • Kachalov A.N. On the Position of the Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister Stephan Burian Von Rajecz Regarding the Kingdom of Bulgaria Before its Entry Into the First World War
  • Wang Yu, Ershad Ahmad Siyar. The Role of China's Foreign Policy Strategy in Ensuring Security in Central Asia
  • Strasburger M.I. Modern Political Lobism of the Russian-Speaking Diaspora in the USA
  • Krazhan A.S., Shelest A.A., Myasnikov D.S. The Possibilities of Applying the Anti-Corruption Practice of the Kingdom of Sweden in Local Authorities of the Russian Federation
  • Kholmova O.YA., Shirokova A.A. Assessment of Military Competencies L.D. Trotsky in the Writings of Historians of Modern Periodicals (2000s-Early 2020s)
  • Bratkovskaya D.V., Rogova Ya.D., Tretyakova N.A. International Terrorism as a threat to the State System
  • Bakun N.A., Kurpil V.N., Petrov A.K. Comparative Analysis of Regional Parliaments of the Far Eastern Federal District

CONFERENCES

Syzdykova Zh.S. Round Table "Central Asia – a Key Link in the Great Silk Road"

Our authors № 6-2022

DOMESTIC HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.001

A.V. GOLOVINOV Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Constitutional and international law, Altai State University, Barnaul, Russia

Yu.V. GOLOVINOVА Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Department of Law and Teaching Methods socio-economic disciplines, Altai State Pedagogical University, Barnaul, Russia

SOCIO-POLITICAL IDEAS OF THE SIBERIAN DEMOCRATIC REGIONALISTS (OBLASTNIKOV) IN THE PUBLICISTS OF THE 1870 S.

The purpose of this work is the reconstruction of the complex ideological and political heritage of the founders of the ideology of Siberian democratic regionalism (regionalism) in the 1870s. The chronological framework is not accidental, since during this period the political concept of Siberian public figures was actively formed.

Guided by the hermeneutic methodology and techniques of political and textual analysis, the authors show that the socio-political ideas of the founders of Siberian regionalism – N.M. Yadrintsev and G.N. Potanin included a diverse range of political issues. Regionalist thinkers actively developed the issue of the educational policy of Imperial Russia, the ideal of which they considered the development of mental centers in the provinces. The problem of reforming the main directions of the state penitentiary policy can be attributed to the number of political science developments of Siberian public figures of this period. The publication also shows the influence of the political philosophy of Russian populism on the ideology of the regionalists. Liberal values, ideas of social solidarity, the priority of democratic rights and freedoms, as well as the humanism of the populist ideology were, on the whole, immanently inherent in all representatives of the political philosophy of Siberian regionalism.

At the same time, based on hermeneutical analysis, the publication reveals the views of the classics of regionalism on the essence and nature of the state. It has been established that the ideal of the state was seen by Siberian public figures in the federal model of the state structure. The authors emphasize that according to the teachings of N.M. Yadrintsev and G.N. Potanin, federalism is the most organically suitable form of the territorial structure of our Fatherland. It is this design that makes it possible to take into account all the diversity of the vital interests of each provincial territory.

Key words: federalism, state, democratic regionalism, penitentiary policy, educational policy, province.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.002

M.H. ALISKHANOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Museology and Cultural Studies of the Kadyrov Chechen State University Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russia

R.S. BAKANAEV Senior researcher at Argunsky State Historical and Architectural and natural museum-reserve, Grozny, Chechen Republic, Russia

ON THE ISSUE OF TOPONYMS IN CHECHEN FOLKLORE (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE HEROIC EPIC)

The paper reveals the regularities of the functioning of toponyms in the heroic epic about Seska-Sols and Malhaazni of mountainous areas and hydronyms of Chechnya. The article reveals previously unknown facts related to the legend of Seska-Solsa and Malhaazni, as well as facts related to the fate of her sisters and mother, their historical homeland, and the alleged place of their burial. It is revealed that in the folklore text, along with real toponyms, there are also fictional objects. Of interest are the legends associated with the "petrified army" and the "petrified girl" on the outskirts of the Chechen village of Charmakh. The authors are convinced that national and ethnic history, lifestyle and rituals are reflected in folklore texts and toponyms. Toponyms in folklore are not only a reference point in time and space, but also a way of transmitting historical and cultural phenomena, worldview.

Key words: heroic epic, Seska-Solsa, Malhaazni, Banduk, toponym, "Petrified army", "Petrified girl".

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.003

B.A. PASILOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Tashkent State Pedagogical University named after Nizamy, Tashkent, Uzbekistan

G.K. OTARBAEVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Assistant Professor, South Kazakhstan University named after Auezov, Shymkent, Kazakhstan

SOCIO-ECONOMIC POLICY OF THE SOVIET AUTHORITIES OF THE BUKHARA AND KHOREZM SOVIET REPUBLICS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE NEP (1921-1924)

The article is devoted to the consideration of the socio-economic policy of the Soviet government in the Bukhara People's Soviet Republic and the Khiva People's Soviet Republic during the years of the new economic policy. It is noted that the policy of the Bolsheviks in the Central Asian region had its own specific features. It is emphasized that the Communists, with the help of the communist parties created under their control in these republics – the BCP and the CCP, directly carried out the policy of the center, actively using the local authorities created by them. It is concluded that despite the complexity of the socio-economic situation in the region in the 20s of the twentieth century, there were also positive developments that laid the foundations for further socio-economic growth of the region as a whole.

Key words: Soviet power, communists, politics, capital, new economic policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.004

V.A. RAKUNOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Siberian State University geosystems and technologies, Novosibirsk, Russia

THE DOCTRINE "MOSCOW – THE THIRD ROME" AND CHALLENGES OF THE MODERN GEOPOLITICAL SITUATION

The article substantiates the strategic importance of returning to the idea of «Moscow – the Third Rome» in our days. The concept of Moscow as the Third Rome at the beginning of the 21st century is again very relevant. Questions about the importance of Russia for the world and its potential are again in the air. Apparently, this is not a coincidence. The development of the Russian state and society in the modern period (the beginning of the 21st century) takes place in a complex and contradictory situation that has developed both in Russia itself and in the world community as a whole. The existing problems require the development of an effective state policy aimed at the progressive development of the Russian state and society, the activation of all social institutions and structures of the country, combining all the vital forces of the Russian people to solve global problems related to the challenges of the 21st century.

Russian state and community need not only a scientific and technical breakthrough, but also purposeful and consistent activity to form the meanings and values of Russian culture, forming public consciousness and worldview corresponding to the historical socio-cultural code of the Russian (Russian) people.

The article examines the main characteristics of the concept and its interpretation, including geopolitics, how this concept can affect the prospects for the development of Russia's foreign policy and its geopolitical scale. In the modern world, globalization is gaining strength, and one of its new characteristics is the actualization of the continental component of world geopolitics as an objective phenomenon. And Russia, among others, has the necessary prerequisites to become the spiritual and geopolitical center of the world.

Key words: the concept of Moscow – the third Rome, «soft power», globalization, geopolitics, values, Orthodoxy, state doctrine.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.005

H. GOERLITZ Independent researcher, Wiesbaden, Germany

ECONOMIC INTERACTION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND GERMANY AND ITS REGULATION BY STATE AUTHORITIES

Within the framework of this article, an assessment is made of the economic interaction between Russia and Germany for the period of early 2022 in the context of the regulation of economic relations in the sphere by state authorities. The work methodology was formed by combining traditional content analysis and the use of cybermetric services for processing "big data". It is concluded that the structures of both the foreign economic interaction between Russia and Germany, and the regulation of relevant activities by the authorities, are distinguished by asymmetry. It is caused by differences in the structure of the economies of the two countries, the role of the state in the organization of the national economy, the development of political and business institutions. At the same time, none of the formal systems of regulation of foreign economic activity can be called uniquely more effective, since each of them is adequate to the political specifics and management model of a particular state. However, in general, the institutional environment for business support in Germany can be characterized as more advanced.

Key words: Germany, Russia, foreign economic activity, state regulation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.006

M.B. ALLANYAZOV Postgraduate student of St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

STATE PERSONNEL TRAINING IN AMUDARYA REGION AND KHOREZM

State personnel training in Amudarya region and Khorezm. This is a personnel policy that preceded the national-territorial demarcation in Central Asia, when, after the arrival of Soviet power in Central Asia, not local residents began to be appointed to responsible positions, but often visitors from Central Russia or Ukraine, who did not represent the local population.

In the governing body of Soviet power in the Amu Darya department and the region there was not a single strong and influential person of eastern Muslim nationality.

An integrated approach to the study of the topic led to the use of general methods of historical research: comparative historical analysis, historical description, statistical methods. The study was conducted in a historical, problematic and analytical manner.

The source base of the research consists of archival documents and published materials.

A significant group of sources consists of published materials of party congresses, conferences.

They reflect the general principles of the party-state personnel policy and its main directions.

Key words: National demarcation, personnel policy, Amu Darya department, Central Asia, nomenclature, Central Asian Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (b), repression, managerial and executive positions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.007

T.M. DZHARCHYEV Graduate student of Surgut State University, Surgut, Russia

ON WATER SUPPLY AND PURIFICATION OF TOWNS IN THE KHANTY-MANSIYSK AUTONOMOUS OKRUG – YUGRA IN 1992-2020

The article deals with the problems of water supply and water treatment in the cities of the Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous okrug – Yugra (hereinafter KHMAO – Yugra) in 1992-2020. It points out that KHMAO – Yugra had abundant water resources, but they were not suitable for drinking and domestic use without the use of appropriate water treatment facilities because of the high concentration of iron, manganese, nutrients and some other heavy metals. The author analyses the main problems of water supply and purification in the towns of KHMAO – Yugra in 1992-2020 on the basis of a wide range of sources, including materials of the Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare (in particular, state reports «On the condition of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of population in KHMAO – Yugra»), Government of KHMAO – Yugra, Department of Housing and Communal Sector and Energy of KHMAO – Yugra, Department of Natural Resources and Non-Observed Economy Sector of KHMAO – Yugra, Administration of the cities of the district. He concludes that the main problems of water supply and treatment in the cities of the district were the deterioration of water distribution networks, water pollution by oil producers, insufficient water treatment during water intake and non-compliance with sanitary and epidemiological requirements of sanitary protection zones of centralised drinking water supply sources, and obsolete equipment and technological treatment methods not meeting new regulatory technological requirements. The article argues that many of the water supply problems listed above could have been solved by a «smart» water supply system in the cities of KHMAO – Yugra. However, it has not received the necessary application in the majority of the district's cities during the period under study.

Key words: urban water supply, water quality, groundwater, surface water, drinking water supply, water treatment, Khanty-Mansiysk autonomous okrug – Yugra, water intake.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.008

I.I. MITROFANOV Graduate student, Department of Russian History and Methods of Teaching History and Social Studies, Ryazan State University named after S.A. Yesenin (S.A. Yesenin Russian State University), Ryazan, Russia

REORGANIZATION OF THE PRINT MEDIA OF THE RYAZAN REGION IN THE INITIAL PERIOD OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

The article examines the activities of newspapers of the Ryazan region in the initial period of the Great Patriotic War. The tasks that faced the press during the period under review and required restructuring of the work, reorganization of its structure, strict compliance with new requirements are indicated. The complexity of the transition of the local press to work in military conditions and the shortcomings that arose in the work of local newspapers in the summer and autumn of 1941 are shown. The critical remarks of the central press to the Ryazan media were noted.

The analysis of the content of Ryazan newspapers has been carried out, which has changed significantly since the beginning of the Great Patriotic War. The main directions in the content of newspapers aimed at rallying the people and mobilizing forces to achieve victory over fascism, spreading the ideas of Soviet patriotism, increasing the vigilance of the population, countering enemy ideology and propaganda are considered.

As a result of the analysis carried out by the author, the processes of reorganization occurring in the print media in 1941 were identified, and conclusions were drawn about the problems that arose in the press during the period under review and ways to solve them.

Key word: great Patriotic war, Ryazan region, wartime Newspapers, «Stalin's banner», Media in 1941, the press of Ryazan.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.009

S.V. PANIN Postgraduate student of the Department of National History, Institute for the Humanities of Moscow City Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

CHURCH-STATE RELATIONS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XX CENTURY

Throughout the history of Russia, the Church has played an important role in state and public life. Orthodoxy, in principle, was part of the official state ideology, being an integral part of the Uvarov postulate "Autocracy-Orthodoxy-Nationality". The article examines the characteristics of relations between the state and the church at the beginning of the twentieth century. In particular, the analysis of the evolution of church-state relations and the causes and trends that actualized the need for church reform, various variants of which are also considered in the article, is given.

Key words: the Russian Orthodox Church, state, church reform, church-state relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.010

A.A. SHCHUKIN

THE ACTIVITIES OF YURI LUZHKOV AS MAYOR OF MOSCOW IN THE 1990S

The period from 1991 to 2010 in relation to the capital of Russia is often called the “Luzhkov era”. Yuri Mikhailovich as mayor made a huge contribution to changing the face of Moscow. He was the ideological inspirer of many projects to expand infrastructure, housing construction, and the development of the financial sector of the city.

Crises occurred in the history of our country in the 1990s, which still cause discussions in the scientific community. This decade has particular importance in the history of Moscow and is marked by the transformation of the city into a modern successful metropolis.

The article deals with the main directions of Yuri Luzhkov's urban policy in the 1990s. There is traced the process of post-Soviet transformation of the capital under the leadership of the mayor. Author describes the estimates of the participation of Yuri Luzhkov in the management of the capital.

Key words: recent history of Russia, 1990s, Moscow, Yuri Luzhkov.

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.011

L.F. BOLTENKOVA Doctor of Sciences (law), Professor, Moscow, Russia

HYMN TO THE LORD GOD (PHILOSOPHICAL AND RELIGIOUS RESEARCH IN SEVERAL ARTICLES) PART SIX

Starting from the content of the Constitutional norm about God (part 2 of Article 67.1 of the Constitution of the Russian Federation) and analyzing the provisions of the Bible, religious-theological and philosophical literature, the author reveals the concepts of God, Hymn to the Lord God and forms of God glorification. Considering these concepts, the process of glorifying God is investigated.

Key words: God, the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Bible, Hymn, thank the Lord God.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.012

N.S. BOYKO Doctor of historical sciences, candidate of legal sciences, Professor of the Department of Law of the Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanova, Ulyanovsk, Russia

A.V. LOSHAKOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor Department of Information Technologies and General Scientific disciplines of the aircraft building faculty Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Ulyanovsk, Russia

E.V. CHERNENKAYA Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor Department of Information Technologies and General Scientific disciplines of the aircraft building faculty Ulyanovsk State Technical University, Ulyanovsk, Russia

SOLVING THE PROBLEM OF REDUCING THE VALUES OF MATRIXITY AND PARENTITY ON THE BASIS OF IMPROVING THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCE OF THE COUNTRY: HISTORY AND MODERNITY

The article is devoted to the analysis of the problems and significance of the values of marriage and parenthood in the formation of the human potential of the country, to identify the role of education in strengthening them from the standpoint of influencing the development of human potential; recommendations have been developed to improve the quality of human potential based on the educational resource. Since modern civilization offers a person for a healthy and long life much more opportunities than restrictions, it seems that it is necessary to be able to use them: reject excess food and warmth, make up for lack of physical activity and extinguish excessive mental stimuli. From childhood, a person all over the world is subject to the influence of hidden propaganda, open propaganda slogans and the adoption of an alien lifestyle with formed deviations in sexual orientation, often leading to a sex change and a forced, and, unfortunately, often irreversible rejection of natural parenthood due to physiological changes.

Key words: educational resource, significance, problems, value strengthening, marriage, parenthood, human potential.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.013

ZYONG WAN LIN Postgraduate Student, Department of Comparative Political Science, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

POLITICS AND FACTORS INFLUENCING THE PROCESS OF POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION

Political socialization describes the process by which citizens crystallize the political identity, values, and behavior of previous generations. This identity will follow them throughout their lives. This article analyzes the process of political socialization, provides answers to questions that arise in the study of political socialization, assesses the impact of political socialization on citizens, providing additional perspectives, challenges and opportunities for political socialization in countries.

Key words: political socialization, political identity, political institutions, globalization, citizen.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.014

K.V. MASLOV Postgraduate Student, Department of Russian Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE PROBLEM OF THE CONCEPT OF "STATE" IN POLITICAL SCIENCE

The article analyzes approaches to the definition of "state" in political science research by comparing the English concepts of "government", "nation" and "state". The interrelation of the state and sovereignty is proved. The functions of the state are described, the interpretation of the concept of "state" by a number of foreign authors is criticized.

The purpose of this work is to reveal the meaning of the concept of "state" political science and to determine its connection with the sovereign.

The objectives of the article are: to reveal the meaning of the concepts of "government", "nation" and "state", briefly describe the history of the concept of "state" in the Russian language, to determine which of the English concepts corresponds to the concept of "state" in the Russian language, to designate the functions of the state, on the basis of the functions of the state to determine which systems it consists of.

As a result of the work done, the concept of "state" is revealed. Its personalized and collegial types are defined. The specifics of two types of state are shown on the example of the administrative system of the state. The disadvantages and advantages of each type are indicated. The importance of using the concept of "state" in political science is substantiated.

Key words: state, sovereign, management structure, personalized type, collegial type, administrative system.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.015

E.A. TOROPOV PhD student of the Department of Philosophy of Politics and Law, Faculty of Philosophy, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

HISTORICAL AND POLITICAL CONTEXT OF THE BIRTH OF ANARCHO-CAPITALISM

Anarcho-capitalism assumes the possibility of a society within purely market institutions and in the absence of state institutions. The article analyses the two-century evolution of the American historical and political context through the prism of the “power-market” dichotomy, which led to the very formation of the concept of anarcho-capitalism within the american conservative movement in the 1960s. This concept continues its development mainly on American ideological grounds – and this article is devoted to identifying the origins of the inherent anti-etatism and permanent skepticism about the role of the United States federal government.

Key words: anarcho-capitalism, american conservatism, libertarianism, David Friedman, Republican Party, Democratic Party, progressivism.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.016

HAO LONG Candidate of Political Sciences (Moscow State University), Doctor of Political Sciences (Peking University), Researcher at the School of Humanities and Social Sciences of Harbin University of Engineering, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTIONS TO THE STATE DUMA OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN 2021: A CHINESE VIEW

Being an important federal legislative and constitutional body, the State Duma has had a huge influence on the political life of Russia since its creation. After the July 2020 "referendum", amendments to the Constitution were approved, expanding presidential powers and presidential term. In this regard, the question of whether Putin will be able to "successfully be re-elected president" in 2024 is actively debated in the scientific and expert field, by the domestic and foreign public. And the elections to the State Duma that took place are positioned in the outside world as an important "preliminary exam" before the "exam of 2024" of President Putin. Studying the features of the previous elections to the State Duma of the Russian Federation after Putin came to power, the political background of the 2021 elections and their final results, allow us to analyze and evaluate the current policy of the Russian Government regarding the Elections to the State Duma, methods of adjustment and potential problems that they broadcast.

Key words: political analysis, elections, to the State Duma of the Russian Federation, political course, political and legal consequences.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.017

A.S. BUROV Postgraduate student, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

DISCOURSE OF INDIGENOUS PEOPLES OF THE NORTH DURING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF TECHNOLOGIES OF POLITICAL DESTABILIZATION. POINTS OF TENSION, GOAL AND TASKS

The article discusses the discourse of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of the Russian Federation in the implementation of political destabilization technologies, the regional hotbeds of political tension caused by them in the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, the interested parties and performers, as well as the purpose and objectives of the considered destructive activity.

The main content of the study is an overview of the theoretical views of modern political science on the problems of political destabilization, as well as the features of its implementation in the context of a destructive influence on the national and regional politics of Russia.

The study is based on the analysis of scientific sources containing information on the issues of political technologies, political destabilization and technologies of political destabilization, as well as open sources of executive authorities, federal and regional regulations governing the national policy in the field of sustainable development of indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of the Russian Federation.

Interdisciplinary and situational research methods are used as the main scientific methods in this work.

The activity of the most acute cases of artificial destabilization and regional hotbeds of political tension, interested parties and performers, as well as the purpose and objectives of the implemented technologies of political destabilization are analyzed.

The results of this study can be used in the formation of recommendations for public authorities, whose competence includes the implementation of national policy.

Key words: political technologies, destabilization, domestic policy, indigenous peoples of the North, national policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.018

A.L. KRIVOVA Lecturer at the Russian State social university, Moscow, Russia

YOUTH POLICY IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION: FORMS OF IMPLEMENTATION, PROBLEMS AND DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES

The driving force behind the main processes in the country is any youth. In the Russian Federation, young people are part of the population, therefore, how will the problems of this social group be solved, especially the current share of the population and the future of the country. Experience shows that it is quickly found that in a rapidly changing attitude to statistical opportunities, there will be countries, effective benefits and productive opportunities to use innovative development, as a result of which we will get young people.

Key words: youth, youth policy, form of youth involvement, political consciousness.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.019

R.R. SADYKOV Attaché of the Russian Embassy in Guinea (2017-2022), Moscow, Russia

THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION FOR THE PREVENTION OF ARMED CONFLICT IN SOCIETY

Strengthening school education is of high importance for the prevention of armed conflicts in developing countries. By instilling social, political and legal principles of behavior in society, schools support the institution of citizenship. Primary and secondary education make a significant contribution to maintaining social stability. At the same time, the educational system must meet a number of criteria to prevent acute forms of group inequality, extremist and nationalist manifestations.

Key words: school education, armed conflict, socialization, developing countries, gender equality in education.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.020

I.A. KHABAROV Candidate of political science, director, "The Оffice of the Public Chamber of Tambov region", Tambov, Russia

POLITICAL "URBAN LANDSCAPE": THE SPACE OF PHYSICAL AND PRACTICAL ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE LOCALITY

The problem of the development of municipal locations, as well as the organization of municipal government and local governments in them, is extremely relevant in the context of public administration reform and economic transformations in 2022. The environment of modern cities and rural municipalities is a segment of the unified political, administrative, economic, and cultural spaces of Russia, its regions, and supranational processes. A comprehensive consideration of the political reality of localities, in particular, physical space as one of the dimensions of the actual field of community self-organization, seems useful. An integrated approach involves taking into account the conditions of the political system and the management system, models of the actor's relationship with reality with the priorities of the interested development. The purpose of the article is to study the political composition of the modern locality in the aspect of physical space and the implementation of practices of entrepreneurial development of territories. At the same time, it is necessary to solve the tasks of identifying the specifics of the locality as a territorial frontier and the "resource map" of local processes, considering modern forms of organizing communities, assessing the specifics of organizing rural spaces.

The composition of the locality in the physical space is determined by resource interchanges, political practices of the communicative and symbolic fields, processes of interested development, cooperation and competition. Entrepreneurial practices launch mechanisms of community self-organization and space organization. Physical space represents the prerequisites, conditions and consequences of a community as a dynamic system within the administrative boundaries of a municipality. The scientific significance of the work is seen in the understanding of the actual universal models of behavior of actors of various functional spheres as subjects of political reality, individually and collectively creating physical, communicative and symbolic space. This approach has an applied dimension in the organization of interaction with the elites of localities during the implementation of political and other campaigns.

Key words: locality, physical space, self-organization, involvement, developing.

POLITICAL CULTURE AND IDEOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.021

K.V. LUSHKINA Master's degree in Humanities from the Higher School of Economics, Leading Consultant, Department of State Policy in the Sphere of Interethnic Relations, FADN of Russia, Moscow, Russia

LANGUAGE POLICY IN THE SPHERE OF EDUCATION ON MARI LANGUAGE IN THE REPUBLIC OF MARI EL

The article examines the measures of language building in the sphere of education of the Mari El the Republic at different levels: federal, regional and local (individual). Education is one of the main factors in the preservation and development of native language. The republican language policy build upon the federal regulatory framework, while the regional features rely on the ethno-linguistic composition of the population.

The aim of the study is comprehensive investigation of the effectiveness of language policy measures implemented in the Republic of Mari El in the education sphere from the point of view of the actors and native speakers.

The objectives of the study are analyzing of the legal and regulatory framework of federal and regional language policy, the dynamics of the number of peoples inhabiting the republic, in particular Mari and Mari language speakers, as well as the actual actions of the teaching and parent community in relation to the study of mother tongue in the Republic of Mari El.

The main method of research on the measures and effectiveness of language policy in the Mari El Republic is the field research method - expedition, as well as the survey.

On the basis of the research the main reasons for the language situation in the republic have been formulated, and also possible ways of solving problematic issues and measures of language policy to preserve native language have been developed.

Key words: language policy, Mari (meadow, hill), state language, teaching of native language.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.022

JITAEK JO Manager, Representative office of National Research Foundation of Korea in Russia Federation Postgraduate student at the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

PERSPECTIVES OF CORRUPTION IN CONTEMPORARY STUDIES

This article argues the problems of scientific approaches to corruption in contemporary studies, which need to be used to comprehend and develop the concept of corruption and its causes.

The existing scientific approaches define the concept of corruption in different ways, so that the reasons for its emergence differ accordingly. The political approach emphasizes the democratic deficit, whereas the economic approach points to human behavior because of selfish rational calculation of personal gain. The functional approach treats corruption as a useful function which depends on the socio-cultural context. The normative-values approach emphasizes the tacit consent in society when defining corruption.

Considering the above-mentioned approaches, the author concludes that not only is there no generalized concept of corruption in contemporary studies, but there is also no corruption judgment standard applicable regardless of any socio-cultural context and time horizon. The author argues that the development of a corruption judgment standard will make it possible to identify the fundamental causes of corruption, define its universal concept and develop a coherent anti-corruption strategy.

Key words: problems of corruption, review, corruption, political approach, economic approach, functional approach, normative-value approach, social norms, justice, standard of judgment, cause of corruption, ethics, morality.

POLITICAL REGIONALISTICS AND ETHNOPOLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.023

G.N. MUSAEV Postgraduate student of the Russian Academy of Folk economy and public service under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE ARMY AS A TOOL FOR COMBATING ETHNO-POLITICAL CONFLICTS. THE EXPERIENCE OF SOCIO-POLITICAL RESEARCH

The article is devoted to the problems arising as a result of the transformation of the army from an object of state administration into a subject in the conditions of increasing ethnic contradictions and extremist clashes, as well as its role in preventing and preventing conflicts on ethnic grounds. The purpose of our study was to examine the experience of the army's actions in the regions of ethnic conflicts, both with the use of military force, and with the use of a kind of military diplomacy, propaganda and cultural and educational activities. The author comprehensively analyzes the positions of the CSTO (Collective Security Treaty Organization) and the Collective Rapid Reaction Forces (CSR) regarding mutual assistance in preventing ethnic conflicts in the post-Soviet space and overcoming their consequences. He supports the opinion of the Russian military and politicians about the passive and sometimes ambiguous position of the CSTO members who want to receive preferences not only from Russia, but also from NATO member states.

The article uses the data of socio-political methods of studying the opinions and moods of military personnel in conflict zones about their relations with the local population as an empirical basis for the study. The author also identified the patterns of the genesis of the ethnic conflict and peculiar pain points in this process, the moments when it is necessary to intervene a military organization and military force in order to suppress the armed confrontation by extremists and prevent further bloodshed among the local population. As conclusions, general recommendations on the participation of the army in the prevention and prevention of ethnic conflicts are given. The need for a deep and urgent study of the model of behavior of troops in conditions of interethnic conflicts was also noted.

Key words: army, ethnic conflict, terrorism, patterns and lessons of using the army in the conditions of ethnic conflicts at their various stages, CSTO (Collective Security Treaty Organization), Collective Rapid Reaction Forces (CSR).

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND SECTORAL POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.024

A.N. ZOLOTAREVA Expert ANO "Academic Alliance", Moscow, Russia

M.V. AFONIN PhD in Law, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of the Faculty of Humanities of the Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

V.P. BELYAEVA Deputy director for teaching and educational work, the State Budgetary Educational Institution of Moscow «School № 97», Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF DIGITAL REGULATION IN STATE MIGRATION POLICY

In the paper, the authors consider the features of digitalization of public administration on the example of the migration sphere. The sphere of migration is being digitalized quite actively, the possibilities of state electronic services are expanding not only for Russian citizens, but also for external migrants. The attention is focused on the tasks of digitalization of the migration policy of the state, reflected in the concept of the state migration policy of Russia until 2025. According to the authors, the use of digital technologies in the field of migration will have a positive impact on the implementation of the state migration policy in terms of providing public services and countering illegal migration.

Key words: digitalization, migration, public policy, migration policy, public administration, artificial intelligence.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.025

E.P. MAKAROV Candidate of Historical Sciences, associate Professor of the department Philosophy, social sciences and humanities, Samara State Technical University, Samara, Russia

M.V. KUROCHKIN Candidate of Historical Sciences, associate Professor of the department General history, law and teaching methods, Samara State Social and Pedagogical University, Samara, Russia

THE PONTIAC WAR AS A BACKGROUND FACTOR IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NORTH AMERICAN COLONIAL POLICY OF GREAT BRITAIN

The historical context of this study is based on the gradual changes in the socio-political situation in the North American colonies of Great Britain in the first half of the 1760s, noticeable during the beginning of the Pontiac War. An analysis of the approach of the British authorities to establishing stronger trade, economic and political and legal control in North America contributes to the study of the early political and cultural consolidation of American society, as well as its radicalization immediately before the active inclusion of the colonies in the process of fighting for their own independence from the mother country. The study does not focus on the introduction of sugar and tax legislation, bringing to the fore the study of other important features of the state colonial policy of Great Britain, such as religious and cultural separation, issues of land ownership and colonization, as well as local problems of the western border, especially noticeable during the period of two wars. The chosen historical time period is of particular interest, since the development of American colonial society at this time took place in the virtual absence of the interwar period.

Key words: French and Indian War, Pontiac War, Great Britain, North America, colonial policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.026

M.E. RODIONOVA Candidate of Science in Sociology, Associate Professor, Ph.D., Associate Professor of the Department of Political Sciences, Faculty of Social Science and Mass Communication Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

I.V. EREMENKO PhD in Philosophy, Senior Lecturer, Department of Mass Communications and Media Business, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTION CAMPAIGNS OF WESTERN LEADERS IN 2020: PR-TECHNOLOGIES AND PRACTICES (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE USA)

The prerequisites and key factors that directly influenced the outcome of the US presidential election in 2020 are considered. A comparative analysis of the political rhetoric of the leaders of the Democratic and Republican parties was carried out, through which the most effective strategic decisions of the J. Biden campaign in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic were identified. An analysis of the financing of presidential campaigns of candidates was carried out. Based on a detailed briefing of the speeches of candidates during the 2020 election campaign, the most relevant theses were identified.

Key words: PR technologies, electoral processes, USA, elections, electoral technologies, pandemic, Covid-19.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.027

N.U. KHANALIEV Candidate of Political Sciences, Officer of the Department for New Challenges and Threats of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE PHENOMENON OF THE HEAD OF CHECHNYA RAMZAN KADYROV IN PROMOTING INTERNATIONAL PEACE AND SECURITY

The head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Akhmatovich Kadyrov, plays an important and responsible role in the system of international security. The authority of Ramzan Kadyrov in the Islamic world has served as the most important tool for the implementation of Russia's foreign policy in the Middle East region. The Chechen leader was able to deploy the Chechen police in Syria and at the same time ensured the restoration of mosques and the provision of humanitarian assistance to the population of a number of Middle Eastern states. Kadyrov also took a prominent place in the religious, military and economic spheres of the Arab world. Russian diplomacy is using the potential and influence of Ramzan Kadyrov in Islamic countries to establish contacts and a lasting dialogue with the Muslim world community. Chechens have always played a significant role in the military security system of the state, from tsarist times to the present day. Chechen law enforcement agencies took an active part in the peace enforcement operation in Georgia in August 2008. Chechen volunteers helped the Donbass militia in 2014. Units from the Chechen Republic were involved in the Syrian campaign. After the announcement by Russian President Vladimir Putin on February 24, 2022, of the start of a special military operation in Ukraine, Chechnya declares its full support. By participating in a special operation to demilitarize and denazify Ukraine, the Chechens and their leader gained even greater prestige and huge political capital not only in Russia, but also abroad.

Key words: Head of the Chechen Republic, Ramzan Kadyrov, Adam Delimkhanov, international security, Middle East, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Islam, Chechen special forces, Ukraine, special military operation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.028

A.N. KACHALOV Postgraduate student of Moscow Region State University, Faculty of History, Political Science and Law, Moscow, Russia

ON THE POSITION OF THE AUSTRO-HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER STEPHAN BURIAN VON RAJECZ REGARDING THE KINGDOM OF BULGARIA BEFORE ITS ENTRY INTO THE FIRST WORLD WAR

Aim. To analyze the memoirs and records of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Austro-Hungarian Empire Stephan Burian von Rajecz to consider the position regarding the Kingdom of Bulgaria in the context of the First World War.

Methodology. The author has studied the sources of personal origin, conducted their criticism and revealed cause-and-effect relationships that were previously only partially reflected. The research is based on a civilizational approach based on ideographic and synchronization methods.

Results. An in-depth look at the policy of the Austrian authorities, through the position of Foreign Minister Stephan Burian von Rajecz expressed in the struggle for influence over the Kingdom of Bulgaria with the Russian Empire. Creation of conditions and contradictions on the part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire for the involvement of the Kingdom of Bulgaria in the First World War on the side of the Triple Alliance.

Key words: Stephan Burian, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, World War I, international relations, position, сount.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.029

WANG YU PhD student, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

ERSHAD AHMAD SIYAR PhD Student, Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

THE ROLE OF CHINA'S FOREIGN POLICY STRATEGY IN ENSURING SECURITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

The purpose of the study is to describe China's foreign policy strategy in Central Asia. The article clarifies the role of economic and domestic political factors in shaping China's policy in the region. The novelty of the study lies in the fact that for the first time in the historical paradigm, the sequence of China's foreign policy strategy at the present stage of development of the countries of the region is considered. As a result, it was determined that China's diplomacy relies on well-known principles of cooperation, uses established international mechanisms as a basis, and the main means of implementing China's strategy is the expansion of China's economic influence. At the same time, an important aspect is the dependence of the stability of the north-western regions of China on the situation in Central Asia.

Key words: foreign policy strategy, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Central Asia, regional security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.030

M.L. STRASBURGER Postgraduate Student, Department of History and Theory of Politics Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

MODERN POLITICAL LOBISM OF THE RUSSIAN-SPEAKING DIASPORA IN THE USA

In the article, the author examines the current state of political lobbying of the Russian-speaking diaspora in the United States. The author highlights the various approaches and points of view of researchers of the American Russian-speaking community and comes to the conclusion, that due to the general disunity and lack of consolidation within American society, the Russian-speaking diaspora has not been able to take shape politically and create a strong political lobby capable of defending and representing their own interests and interests of the "parent" state. The article indicates the main reasons for the failure of Russian-language lobbying, as well as recommendations for its development and strengthening.

Key words: Russian-speaking diaspora, lobbying, political participation, waves of emigration, USA.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.031

A.S. KRAZHAN Student of the Department of Political Science, Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

A.A. SHELEST Student of the Department of Political Science Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

D.S. MYASNIKOV Student of the Department of Political Science Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE POSSIBILITIES OF APPLYING THE ANTI-CORRUPTION PRACTICE OF THE KINGDOM OF SWEDEN IN LOCAL AUTHORITIES OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

To date, anti-corruption activity is one of the priority in the field of public administration of Russia. The authors analyze the municipal experience of countering the corruption of the Kingdom of Sweden and consider the possibility of its use in the Russian Federation. Using institutional and comparative methods in studies, the authors propose conclusions that in Russia it is possible to create a social and administrative anti-corruption body similar to the Swedish “institute against bribes”.

Key words: state policy in combating corruption, municipality, institute against bribes.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.032

O.YA. KHOLMOVA Student Department of History, Socio-Economic and Social Disciplines P.P. Ershov Ishim Pedagogical Institute (branch) of the Tyumen State University, Ishim, Russia

A.A. SHIROKOVA Student Department of History, Socio-Economic and Social Disciplines P.P. Ershov Ishim Pedagogical Institute (branch) of the Tyumen State University, Ishim, Russia

ASSESSMENT OF MILITARY COMPETENCIES L.D. TROTSKY IN THE WRITINGS OF HISTORIANS OF MODERN PERIODICALS (2000S-EARLY 2020S)

The article analyzes the works of modern researchers devoted to the military-political activities of L.D. Trotsky. The main purpose of the work is to determine the assessment of the military competencies of the Chairman of the RSFSR in modern periodicals, to achieve which we studied scientific works reflecting the process of building the Armed Forces of the RSFSR, the implementation of general command of military units, the implementation of agrarian policy, the development of strategic operations and the implementation of propaganda activities by L.D. Trotsky. At the same time, we conducted a comparative characterization of the generally accepted points of view of modern historiography with the historiography of the 1920s. As a result, we concluded that modern authors ambiguously assess the military activities of L.D. Trotsky and in this area the facts of his policy remain not fully studied.

Key words: Red Army, L.D. Trotsky, Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council, People's Commissariat of Military Affairs.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.033

D.V. BRATKOVSKAYA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

YA.D. ROGOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

N.A. TRETYAKOVA Student Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM AS A THREAT TO THE STATE SYSTEM

In the article, the author refers to one of the most high-profile and topical problems of the modern world, threatening the well-being of mankind both at the regional and interstate levels – such a phenomenon as terrorism. Terrorist activity today poses a threat to various areas of public life, manifests itself on a variety of scales, which justifies the need for an integrated approach to counteracting it. The relevance of the study is due to processes that cannot go unnoticed by the world community: the terrorist threat has existed and continues to exist. Terrorism knows no state borders, compassion or humanity. The threat is presented on a global scale, it remains extremely acute, which, accordingly, explains its choice as a subject for research by many modern specialists. The purpose of the article is to study the place of terrorism in modern interstate relations and, more importantly, its influence and impact on both external and internal processes. In the course of the study, the author turns to legal acts that form the definition of international terrorism as such. The manifestation of terrorism at the state level is also considered, as well as the actual threats to the functioning of the state system and their possible sources. The result of the study was the author's conclusions about the measures that are possible options for confronting terrorist activity in the state system and beyond – in the international arena as a whole.

Key words: terrorism, political terrorism, international terrorism, political system, international threat, international law, national security, modern threats.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.034

N.A. BAKUN Student of the Faculty of History, Department of Political Science and Sociology of the Buryat State University named after Dorzhi Banzarov, Ulan-Ude, Russia

V.N. KURPIL Student of the Faculty of History, Department of Political Science and Sociology of the Buryat State University named after Dorzhi Banzarov, Ulan-Ude, Russia

A.K. PETROV Student of the Faculty of History, Department of Political Science and Sociology of the Buryat State University named after Dorzhi Banzarov, Ulan-Ude, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF REGIONAL PARLIAMENTS OF THE FAR EASTERN FEDERAL DISTRICT

This article provides a comparative analysis of the regional parliaments of the Far Eastern Federal District (hereinafter, the Far Eastern Federal District): The Republic of Buryatia, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), the Trans-Baikal Territory, the Kamchatka Territory, the Primorsky Territory, the Khabarovsk Territory, the Amur Region, the Magadan Region, the Sakhalin Region, the Jewish Autonomous Region, the Chukotka Autonomous District. The authors studied the structure of regional parliaments, their social composition, revealed the number of incumbents in legislative structures, the representation of women in the parliaments of the Far Eastern Federal District, studied the fractional composition in the legislative bodies of the subjects of this federal District and revealed their effective number of parties. In accordance with the data obtained, the authors determined the role and degree of influence of inclusiveness on the political stability of the regions, the role of women's representation in the level of development of democratic institutions in the region, and identified the degree of democracy of parliaments according to the criterion of pluralism, using the effective number of parties. On the basis of a comparative analysis of regional legislative authorities, the general and distinctive characteristics of the parliaments of the Far Eastern Federal District were identified.

Key words: inclusiveness in regional parliaments, social composition of regional parliaments, representation of women in regional parliaments, gender composition of regional parliaments, factional composition of regional parliaments, effective number of parties of regional parliaments, parliamentarism, parliamentarians.

CONFERENCES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2022.87.6.035

ZH.S. SYZDYKOVA Doctor of History, Professor, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Moscow, Russia

ROUND TABLE “CENTRAL ASIA IS A KEY LINK GREAT SILK ROAD"

   
© 2012 ВОПРОСЫ НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫХ И ФЕДЕРАТИВНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ