Menu  

   

elibrary1

   

Scientific Journal “Issues of National and Federative Relations” Volume 14. Issue 4 (109), 2024

CONTENTS

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

  • Makina A.I. Separate Customs of Help from the Khakas
  • Zuev A.V. Russian Shipbuilding in the Second Half of the XIX – Early XX Centuries
  • Ryabova M.M. Theoretical Foundations of Solidary Economy as an Object of Specific Historical Research (Based on the Example of Old Believer Entrepreneurship)
  • Sibiryakov M.N. The Fuel Crisis in Yakutsk in the Winter of 1922
  • Bill M.V. Formation of the USSR State Arbitration in 1931
  • Borodin M.P., Platonov A.V., Rubtsov S.N. Main Directions of Material and Technical Condition of the Professional Fire Team Depot in Ensuring Fire Safety of the Capital of the Russian Empire
  • Ladovich A.A. Development of Transportation System in Western Siberia in the XIX Century
  • Miku N.V. Legal Education and Legal Propaganda in the USSR in the Early 1970s. (Based on the Materials of the Activities of Cultural Institutions of the Penza Region)
  • Osinskaya A.A., Osipov A.A., Maximova M.V., Kolodeznikova M.I., Guryeva A.B. The Study of the Ecogeographic Features of the Brush Structure on the Example of Students of the North-Eastern Federal University
  • Ptashko T.G., Perebeynos A.E., Trofimova N.V., Pavlenko E.F. Increasing the Economic Literacy of Workers at Ural Factories in the Second Half of the 20th Century
  • Snezhkova I.A. Crimea Before and After its Accession to Russia

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

  • Elistratova S.S., Rodionova M.E. Forms of Administrative-Territorial Division in Modern Federal States: Foreign and Russian Experience

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

  • Borisova N.R., Ilyazarova D.V. Regulatory and Legal Support of Activities Clubs of Young Voters
  • Muradyan L.O. Results of the “Parade of Sovereignities” and Ratification of the Belovezha Agreements by the Supreme Council of Russia
  • Vasil'chenko M.A. On the Issue of Private Finance Political Parties in Russia
  • Putina O.V. Religions in the Media Sphere: Problems and Challenges of Our Time
  • Dadaev Z.A. The Specifics of the Impact of Mass Media on the Formation of Political Consciousness of Young People
  • Palitay I.S., Devochkina A.S. Young Citizens Perceive the System of Recruiting Political Leaders in Modern Russia (on the Example of the Yaroslavl Region)
  • Akopyan G.A. Modern Terrorism: Key Features of Development and Problems of its Eradication
  • Trofimov V.A. Sakhalin Oblast as an Ethnopolitical Space and a Regional Community

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

  • Fedotova M.S. The Policy of Commercialization of Higher Education in Russia: Cultural and Historical Dimensions

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

  • Makarov E.P., Fedotov V.V. Impact of the French and Indian War 1754-1763 to Economic Development of Virginia in the Mid-18th Century
  • Li Yawen. China-Kazakhstan Relations within the Framework of Theinitiative “One Belt, One Road”
  • Telenga M.P., Prokopets I.V., Nefyodova Yu.I. The Problem of Vulnerability of Russian Business in Trade and Economic Relations Between Russia and China
  • Alaudinov A.A. Concepts and Approaches of Conducting Hybrid Wars of the People's Republic of China
  • Dong Dan. The Evolution of Diplomatic Relations Between Russia and China: Problems and Prospects for Development
  • Wang Xinyue, Wang Gang. Sino-Russian Relations under the "Belt and Road" Initiative
  • Zinnurov I.Kh. Features of the Development of Socio-Political, Scientific and Educational Cooperation Between Russia and Azerbaijan at the Present Stage
  • Kuruma Yunussa, Kaba Laye, Toure Gnalen. Formation and Implementation of Foreign Policy Strategies of the Republic of Guinea
  • Lan Yujing. The Basic Logic of Modernizing the Political System of China
  • Nasirov E.Kh., Yashkova T.A., Aliyev A.M. Azerbaijan at the Present Stage of Development: a New Vector
  • Pisarenko S.S. Strengthening Australia's Military Capabilities in the IPR
  • Sviridov A.A. Main Trends in the Global Energy Market
  • Skutina S.G., Gerasimova I.V., Afonin M.V., Grishin V.O. Main Directions of Improvement of State Policy on Voluntary Resettlement of Compatriots from Abroad
  • Spasov A.A. Political Analysis of the Dayton Accords as a Fundamental Document in the Settlement of the Ethnopolitical Conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Iliopoulou Areti, Stenko A.I. Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy: 30 Year-Long Success Story of Religious and Parliamentary Diplomacy Synergy and a Promising Platform for Dialogue in the New Political Reality
  • Tikhonov A.E. Environmental Agenda in the Strategies of Global Cities: a Comparative Analysis of London and New York Policies
  • Kobzarev V.N., Shitikova Y.A. Japanese and Chinese Public Opinion on the Ownership of the Senkaku/Diaoyu Islands

REVIEWS AND SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS

  • Medvedev N.P. Foundations of Russian Statehood: on the Question of the Use of Some Current Scientific Publications in Developing a Training Course

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.005

A.I. MAKINA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor Department of Fundamental Medicine, Khakas State University after N.F. Katanov, Abakan, Russia

SEPARATE CUSTOMS OF HELP FROM THE KHAKAS

Economic and household forms of assistance and mutual assistance characterize the archaic stage of social work, are aimed at ensuring the life and well-being of members of the clan, community, and people as a whole. Forms of assistance and mutual assistance in the traditional Khakass society covered all aspects of ensuring the life of the people, including housing construction, assistance in extreme situations. The identification and description of the traditions of assistance in housing construction, extreme situations among Khakas will allow us to substantiate the existence of a prototype of the institute of social work in the region. Research objectives: to highlight the presence of a tradition of assistance in housing construction, to characterize the tradition of assistance in housing construction, to describe the traditions of assistance in extreme situations. Research methods: systematic and comparative analysis. The period under study: the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. The results of the study: during the period under study, the Khakass people had traditions of helping.

Key words: mutual assistance, housing, community, clan, social assistance, construction, traditions of assistance, Khakassia, Khakass ethnic group.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.001

A.V. ZUEV Candidate of historical sciences, Associate Professor of the of private law departments, Admiral Makarov State University of Maritime and Inland Shipping, St. Petersburg, Russia

RUSSIAN SHIPBUILDING IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

The article examines the state of commercial shipbuilding in post-reform Russia. The transition from sailing ships to steam ships required a radical reorganization and modernization of the existing network of public and private admiralties, factories, shipyards and workshops. Over several decades, the number of ships in the maritime fleet has increased many times. The progressive development of domestic shipbuilding in pre-revolutionary Russia is confirmed. However, it can be stated that despite the progress, Russian shipyards did not have sufficient capacity to meet the needs of the commercial fleet.

Key words: Shipping companies, merchant shipping, merchant fleet, shipbuilding, ship repair, mechanical plants, shipyards, docks, admiralty.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.002

М.М. RYABOVA Senior Lecturer of the Department of History and Humanities, State University of Humanities and Technology, Moscow, Russia

THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF SOLIDARY ECONOMY AS AN OBJECT OF SPECIFIC HISTORICAL RESEARCH (BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF OLD BELIEVER ENTREPRENEURSHIP)

The article discusses the theoretical foundations of the solidarity economy, which are fully compatible with the principles of Old Believer entrepreneurship. Today, researchers are increasingly turning to the Old Believer identity, emphasizing their characteristic qualities, such as community, mutual trust and high social responsibility. Thanks largely to these features, the Old Believers created a special economic structure based on elements of a solidarity economy. It should be emphasized that the author’s understanding of the term “solidarity” as the consolidation of society to solve certain cultural, socio-economic, political problems aimed at achieving the common good, presupposes the presence of formed common values, goals, beliefs or interests, which was always present in the communities of the “old faith." Certain stories related to the formation of the foundations of the solidarity economy are already present in historical research. In this regard, the study of the principles of Old Believer entrepreneurship, which are fully compatible with the principles of the solidarity economy, also deserve special attention.

Key words: solidarity economy, entrepreneurship, Old Believers, consolidation, community.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.003

M.N. SIBIRYAKOV Postgraduate student of the Faculty of History of the M.K. Ammosov NEFU, Yakutsk, Russia

THE FUEL CRISIS IN YAKUTSK IN THE WINTER OF 1922

The scientific article is devoted to a little-studied problem in Russian historiography – the wood crisis that arose in the city of Yakutsk during the siege of 1922 as a result of military operations and the difficult political situation around the city. This article examines the crisis situations caused by the wood famine and the measures to combat the crisis situation that were taken by the city's leadership. The purpose of this article is to study the crisis and its impact on the life of the city's population. The research is based on the analysis of publications in the press of those years and archival documents. The author examines the impact of the fuel crisis on the cultural and socio-economic life of the city. The article discusses ways to solve these problems, which were undertaken by local governments that worked in harsh conditions of a harsh winter. The author comes to the conclusion that one of the main problems was the provision of fuel wood to the residents of the city, which were used for heating buildings. The causes and consequences of the crisis in Yakutsk in 1922 were studied. The destruction of land and river transport routes, lack of financing led to a catastrophic situation with the provision of essential goods to citizens in the winter of 1921-1922.

Key words: Russian Civil War, siege of Yakutsk, insurgency, fuel forest, fuel crisis.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.004

M.V. BILL Graduate student Surgut State University, Surgut, Russia

FORMATION OF THE USSR STATE ARBITRATION IN 1931

In this article, based on a wide range of historical literature and archival sources introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, an attempt is made through the use of narrative, historical-comparative, chronological and statistical methods of historical research to analyze the socio-economic reasons for the creation and functioning of the State Arbitration of the USSR. In order to identify the main reasons for the decision to create a State arbitration with the redirection of the tasks of arbitration commissions to it, the author pays great attention to the study of socio-economic processes taking place in the Soviet Union during the period under consideration.

Noting the differences in the activities of State Arbitration and Arbitration Commissions, he notes the peculiarities of its formation, the natural result of which was the creation of an institution that met the historical challenges of the period under study and greatly contributed to the growth of the economic potential of the country.

Key words: State Arbitration of the USSR, arbitration commission, jurisdiction, legal regulation, social and economic reasons, professional training, socialist competition, economic policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.006

M.P. BORODIN Candidate of historical sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Retraining and Advanced Training of Specialists, St. Petersburg University of the State Fire Service of the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Russia named after Hero of the Russian Federation General of the Army E.N. Zinicheva, St. Petersburg, Russia

A.V. PLATONOV Candidate of philosophical sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of socio-economic and humanitarian disciplines, Leningrad Regional Branch of the St. Petersburg University of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia

S.N. RUBTSOV Doctor of historical sciences, Professor of the Departments of social sciences Northwest Institute of Management of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, St. Petersburg, Russia

MAIN DIRECTIONS OF MATERIAL AND TECHNICAL CONDITION OF THE PROFESSIONAL FIRE TEAM DEPOT IN ENSURING FIRE SAFETY OF THE CAPITAL OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE

The article carried out a study of the main areas of the material and technical condition of the professional fire brigade depot of the capital of the Russian Empire as part of improving fire safety. The relevance of the article is due to the continuity of the main aspects of the material and technical condition of the depot of the professional fire brigade of the capital of the Russian Empire in the activities of the fire service at the present time. The purpose of the study is to identify the accents of the main directions of development and improvement of the material and technical condition of the imperial fire brigade depot, which contributes to the fulfillment of the tasks of modern fire and rescue units in extinguishing fires and eliminating emergency situations, based on historical experience and professional competencies in the field of fire safety. An analysis of the main directions of development and improvement of the material and technical condition of the depot of the Imperial Capital professional fire brigade indicates its relevance at the present stage in organizing fire suppression and emergency response, taking into account optimization and corresponding technical progress in the architectural and functional components.

Key words: fire station, telegraph office, barracks, pipe shed, fire stables, fire tower.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.007

А.А. LADOVICH Postgraduate student of the Department of History and Documentology Kurgan State University, Kurgan, Russia

DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM IN WESTERN SIBERIA IN THE XIX CENTURY

The article analyzes the sources, which are devoted to the specifics of transport proper, as well as judgments and assessments of the history of transport in Western Siberia in the XIX century. The purpose of the article is to study the historical aspects of the development of transportation infrastructure in Western Siberia in the XIX century. Objectives: 1) to characterize the economic situation of the territories of Western Siberia and its influence on the dynamics of transport system development; 2) to study the demographic condition in the region and its role in the formation of transport routes; 3) to describe the benefits for the treasury and the state due to the development of transport in Western Siberia. Methods: the basis of the study is the principles of scientific objectivity and historicism. The work used historical and general scientific methods of research, namely: analysis and synthesis, historical-genetic, historical-typological, biographical, historical-comparative, problem-historiographical and others. Results: in the process of research it was established that in the development of transport system in Western Siberia in the XIX century the economic specialization of the region, socio-economic parameters and socio-cultural aspect of life of the population, as well as the relationship with internal external markets were of great importance. For the state treasury, transportation companies and peasants with developed economies, especially for postal functions, were of considerable commercial and profitable interest. Conclusions – the growth of Siberian population became a prerequisite for the strengthening and development of the transportation network. In Siberia there was constantly felt an acute shortage of local people, because of what roads with high possibility to build and operate, repair was very problematic.

Key words: development, transportation system, Western Siberia, post-Soviet historiography, population, economy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.008

N.V. MIKU Candidate of historical sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy of Penza State University of Architecture and Construction, Penza, Russia

LEGAL EDUCATION AND LEGAL PROPAGANDA IN THE USSR IN THE EARLY 1970S. (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE ACTIVITIES OF CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS OF THE PENZA REGION)

The article considers issues of content and types of work of Soviet-state bodies on legal education and propaganda of legal knowledge among citizens at the regional level – in the Penza region in the designated chronological framework – in the early 1970s. A study of the practice of Penza organizations in legal education allows you to recreate an objective picture of the daily life of the Soviet population; supplement the historical knowledge of the essence of state policy in the social sphere during the period under review.

The article sets a goal – to study the content and forms of work of cultural institutions of the Penza region of the early 1970s. on legal education and legal propaganda. The understanding of the term «legal education» is specified as the actions of state and public structures to develop Soviet legal awareness and raise the legal culture of the population.

The tasks of the study were implemented on the basis of analysis and generalization of materials from the Foundation of the Department of Culture of the Penza Oblast Executive Committee of the State Archive of the Penza Region (F. r-2357). Based on the documents of the archive, the key directions and organization of the dissemination of legal knowledge in the context of Soviet-party decisions were studied; analyzed the practice of creating coordination and methodological councils for legal propaganda; forms of propaganda are indicated – lectures, corners, wall newspapers, «Days of legal culture», visiting sessions of courts, etc.

The work uses methods: historical-genetic, historical-comparative.

The study of the main directions and methods of implementing legal propaganda in the early 1970s. in the Penza region made it possible to identify the main trends and difficulties in the development of cultural institutions, to determine the direction of the subsequent study of the scientific problem.

Key words: USSR, legal awareness, legal education, legal propaganda, cultural institutions, Penza region.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.009

А.А. OSINSKAYA Candidate of Medical Sciences, associate Professor of the Department of Human Anatomy at the Medical Institute of the North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov Yakutsk, Russia

А.А. OSIPOV Student of the Medical Institute of the North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov, Yakutsk, Russia

M.V. MAXIMOVA Student of the Medical Institute of the North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov, Yakutsk, Russia

M.I. KOLODEZNIKOVA Student of the Medical Institute of the North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov, Yakutsk, Russia

A.B. GURYEVA Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Human Anatomy at the Medical Institute of the North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov Yakutsk, Russia

THE STUDY OF THE ECOGEOGRAPHIC FEATURES OF THE BRUSH STRUCTURE ON THE EXAMPLE OF STUDENTS OF THE NORTH-EASTERN FEDERAL UNIVERSITY

Purpose: to determine the ecogeographic features of the structure of the brush in NEFU students.

Methods: The paper presents an analysis of anthropometric measurements of the hand of 43 male students of the NEFU Medical Institute. The surveyed were divided into groups according to the region of permanent residence. The height and anthropometric parameters of the brush were measured. Statistical processing of the obtained data was carried out using the SPSS application software package for Windows (version 22.0).

Results: It was revealed that with indistinguishable values of height, the indicators of the length and width of the hand are greater in students from Egypt than in Yakuts. The width of the metacarpal of the hand in the examined from the first group is significantly higher than in the examined from the second. In Egyptians, the average values of the lengths of the proximal, intermediate and distal phalanges of all fingers of the hand are significantly higher than those of Yakut students. It was found that the length of the hand of Egyptian students is longer due to the length of the phalanges of the fingers of the hand.

Conclusions: The conducted anthropometric study showed the presence of ecogeographic features of the brush.

Key words: boys, brush length, brush width, length of the phalanges of the brush, anthropometry, Yakutia, Egypt.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.010

T.G. PTASHKO Сandidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Assistant professor, Social work, Pedagogics and Psychology Department, Southern Ural State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University, Chelyabinsk, Russia

A.E. PEREBEYNOS Candidate of Historical Sciences, Assistant professor, General History Department, Southern Ural State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University, Chelyabinsk, Russia

N.V. TROFIMOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Lecturer at the Department of General History, South Ural State Humanitarian and Pedagogical University, Department of World History, Chelyabinsk, Russia

E.F. PAVLENKO Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Sociology and Social Work, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia

INCREASING THE ECONOMIC LITERACY OF WORKERS AT URAL FACTORIES IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY

Organization of economic education of the population is a current direction of social policy of a modern state. The requirements of civil society are aimed at developing financial literacy among people, including the younger generation, which contributes to the quality of life, ensuring a correct understanding of economic aspects that affect all spheres of human life – professional, family, personal.

This issue has deep historical roots, the study of which allows for a competent approach to organizing the financial literacy system today. Objectives of the study: to reveal the issue of increasing the economic education of workers at Ural enterprises in the middle of the 20th century, to characterize the features of the functioning of the institute of propagandists, to identify the specific issues of working on the personnel of propagandists, improving the level of their theoretical and methodological skills through courses, seminars, conferences, and the work of methodological councils in factories, carrying out certification, as well as using the work experience of propagandists.

Research methods: system analysis, generalization. Period under study: second half of the 20th century.

Results: the management of Ural enterprises has developed a special system for organizing the economic education of workers, which is characterized by the selection of personnel to increase the economic level of workers, improving the level of methodological skills of propagandists through the use of a variety of training methods (courses, seminars, conferences, work of methodological councils at factories, certification of propagandists), using the work experience of propagandists.

Conclusion: description of the issue of organizing increased economic literacy of workers in Ural factories in the second half. The 20th century allows us to study the experience and state that it can be used in modern conditions in order to increase the level of economic education of workers.

Key words: economic education, propagandists, training, methods of training propagandists.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.012

I.A. SNEZHKOVA Cand. Sci. (Hist.), Senior Researcher, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology name after N.N. Miklukho-Maklay, RAS, Russia, Moscow

CRIMEA BEFORE AND AFTER ITS ACCESSION TO RUSSIA

In March 2024, the accession of Crimea to Russia after a 10-year break was widely celebrated in our country. The proposed paper analyzed the existence of Crimea as part of Ukraine from the early 90's and after its accession to Russia in 2014. Crimeans, being a part of Ukraine, have severely experienced the attempts of Ukraine to reduce the teaching of the Russian language in schools, the transformation of historical science in order to reformat the consciousness of the people to the Ukrainian way. In this regard, after the coup d'état in 2013, the Crimeans tried to secede from Ukraine, which they succeeded with the support of Russia. Since becoming a part of Russia, the region has undergone numerous changes related to large-scale construction and improvement of the region. The Crimean Bridge, the Tavrida highway, and a new airport were built. Numerous kindergartens and schools appeared. The number of well-equipped hospitals increased. The living standards of Crimeans have improved – salaries and pensions have increased, unemployment has decreased. All these reasons led to almost 100 percent support of people for Crimea as part of Russia and a wide celebration of its 10th anniversary.

Key words: Crimea as part of Ukraine – infringement of the Russian language and transformation of history, coup d'état 2013. Referendum on the of Crimea to Russiа 2014 a. Large-scale construction in Crimea after the accession and rise of the living standards of Crimeans with the active support of Russia.

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.013

S.S. ELISTRATOVA Marketer at Resultative Marketing LLC, graduate of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russia

M.E. RODIONOVA Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Faculty of Social Sciences and Mass Communications, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Associate Professor of the Department of Public Procurement and Public, Department of Economics Faculty of the State University of Enlightenment, Moscow, Russia

FORMS OF ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL DIVISION IN MODERN FEDERAL STATES: FOREIGN AND RUSSIAN EXPERIENCE

The article examines the theoretical and practical aspects of administrative-territorial division as well as their forms in federal states. The purpose of the work is highlighting the features of the forms of administrative and territorial division of modern federations. The analysis confirms the concept of symmetric and asymmetric federations. Some federations seek to give subjects the same status, rights and opportunities (for example, Germany), and there are those who constitutionally fix the imbalance of status and powers of territorial units within the federation (for example, Canada, India, Russia). Moreover, there are countries where the principle of symmetry formally applies, but in practice asymmetric trends are manifested (UAE). All this is conditioned by historical development, cultural, geographical and demographic factors.

Key words: administrative-territorial division, forms of administrative-territorial division, administrative-territorial structure, federal state, symmetric federations, asymmetric federations, Russia, USA, Canada, Germany, India, UAE and Nigeria.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.014

N.R. BORISOVA Senior Lecturer, Department of Theory and History of State and Law and Public Law Disciplines, Nizhnekamsk Branch of Kazan Innovative University named after V.G. Timiryasov, Nizhnekamsk, Russia

D.V. ILYAZAROVA Student of the Faculty of Law of Nizhnekamsk branch of Kazan Innovative University named after V.G. Timiryasov, Nizhnekamsk, Russia

REGULATORY AND LEGAL SUPPORT OF ACTIVITIES CLUBS OF YOUNG VOTERS

Currently, clubs of young voters have established themselves as an effective form of work with young and future voters, which requires detailed study and institutionalization based on the generalization of the most effective practices. Despite the fact that the current domestic legislation encourages the creation and functioning of youth associations designed to promote the formation of electoral awareness and electoral activity, it is premature to talk about the existence of the necessary and sufficient consolidation of the legal status of clubs of young voters. The purpose of this study is a comprehensive analysis of the regulatory and legal regulation of the activities of clubs of young voters established and successfully operating in the Russian Federation. The object of the study is public relations arising in the process of regulatory regulation of the creation and functioning of clubs of young voters. The subject of the study is the norms of domestic legislation in the field of regulatory regulation of the activities of clubs of young voters, as well as their practical implementation. The methodological basis of the research is a dialectical approach to the cognition of social phenomena, which allows analyzing them in their historical development and functioning, in the context of a set of objective and subjective factors, as well as general scientific (systemic, functional) and general logical methods (analysis, synthesis, analogy), which made it possible to comprehensively and objectively examine the object, establish a list of the most acute questions related to the subject of the study. The scientific and practical relevance of this study lies in the fact that for the first time a comprehensive analysis of the regulatory regulation of the activities of clubs of young voters was carried out, on the basis of which proposals for its further improvement were formulated.

Key words: legal regulation, young voters, clubs of young voters, electoral socialization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.015

L.O. MURADYAN Applicant for the Department of Public Policy and History of State and Law at the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

RESULTS OF THE “PARADE OF SOVEREIGNITIES” AND RATIFICATION OF THE BELOVEZHA AGREEMENTS BY THE SUPREME COUNCIL OF RUSSIA

The events of the end of 1991 turned out to be a point of no return in the history of the Soviet Union. At a time when the power was falling apart, a new rapid course of events was awakening, uncontrollable and dictating its own rules. One of the episodes of this piece of time, called the "parade of sovereignties", and the ratification of the Belovezhskaya Agreements by the Supreme Council of Russia, are key historical periods that had an unpredictable impact on future events.

The relevance of this topic has not decreased now, decades after these events. In fact, they still occupy a central place in the historical analysis of the transition period of the Russian state. The parade of Sovereignties, organized in early December 1991 in Belovezhskaya Pushcha, was a meeting of the heads of the member republics of the USSR, their heads and higher authorities. Here, at this iconic place, a decisive blow was struck against the unified Soviet state, which formally marked the end of its existence.

The Belovezhskaya Agreements, signed by the heads of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, served as an official act on the dissolution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. They became the cause of the impulse that served for the subsequent collapse of other Soviet republics and the formation of new, independent states. This event, of course, became a turning point in the history of Russia and the entire post-Soviet space.

The signed Belovezhskaya Agreements eventually led to the official dissolution of the Soviet Union and marked the beginning of a new stage in the development of the Russian state. The gradually changed political movement of the country since its stay in the USSR led to the restructuring and state-building, widely known as the "legal continuum" of the Soviet administration, which is now called Russia.

Considering this, the results of the "parade of sovereignties" and the ratification of the Belovezhskaya Agreements by the Supreme Council of Russia became key factors that determined the subsequent course of development of the country and its position on the world stage. It was thanks to these events that Russia embarked on the path of building a new state, bringing to life the principles of democracy, freedom, and sovereignty of nations.

Thus, the period of the "parade of sovereignties" and the ratification of the Belovezhskaya Agreements by the Supreme Council of Russia is an integral historical part of the development of Russia and the post-Soviet space. The relevance of this topic is confirmed by the significance and influence that these events had on a turning point in the country's history. Their understanding and analysis allow us to better understand the causes, consequences and dynamics of Russia's development and its position in the global context.

Key words: parade, sovereignty, Bialowieza Agreements.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.016

M.A. VASIL'CHENKO Cand. Sci. (Hist.), Associate Professor of the Chair of Fundamental Legal and Social-humanitarian Disciplines, Moscow Financial and Industrial University «Synergy», Moscow, Russia

ON THE ISSUE OF PRIVATE FINANCE POLITICAL PARTIES IN RUSSIA

The article discusses amendments to the Federal Law "On Political Parties" regarding the interaction of political parties with private capital, related to the possibility of increasing lending to parties by legal entities to 216 million rubles. The relevance of the work is due to the fact that political parties act as a link between the government and society, and are a key condition for the development of democratic institutions. The analysis of measures of support for parties by the state allows us to predict the key trends in the development of the Russian political system. The purpose of the work is to determine the role of this legal document in the development of party building. The objectives of the work are defined by the purpose and formulated as follows: to determine the reasons for the increase in lending, to assess the existing volume of donations in the structure of financial activities of a political party, to determine the possibilities and boundaries of law enforcement practice within the framework of this draft law. The author analyzes the existing legal mechanisms for replenishing the budget of the parties, considers the priority areas of spending. Based on the changes made, he formulates a forecast of possible consequences for the process of political development. Based on the analysis of the financing structure of political parties, the author concludes that the process of interaction between private companies and parties will be complicated by a high degree of financial risks, in the absence of lobbying for the interests of large financial structures.

Key words: political party, budget, commercial banking sector, legal consequences.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.017

O.V. PUTINA Postgraduate of study at the Department of Management in the Sphere of Interethnic and Interfaith Relations of the Faculty of Public Administration of the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education “Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov”; the leading specialist of the Center for International Projects of the Federal State budgetary educational institution of higher Education “Moscow Pedagogical State University”, Moscow, Russia

RELIGIONS IN THE MEDIA SPHERE: PROBLEMS AND CHALLENGES OF OUR TIME

The modern media sphere, where the construction, broadcasting and accumulation of socially significant issues take place, is of great importance for all spheres of society, including religious life. This is confirmed by the appearance on the official websites of religious associations of the addresses of pages in social networks and messengers, personal pages of preachers. The presence of religious associations in the media is caused not only by the desire to transmit information and unite the flock, but also by the need to respond to socio-cultural challenges, the need to respond to the representation of confessional issues by subjects of the media sphere. Often, religious polemics in the media are constructed by the subjects of the media sphere to achieve their goals that are inconsistent with the goals of religious associations. The missionary media activity of religious associations demonstrates a willingness to spread religious tradition, considers it as a means of mutual enrichment of cultures. New languages and communication channels influence intra-confessional activities, defining new formats of interaction, rules of conduct for religious journalists and the need for them to acquire new knowledge and skills. Technological changes entail transformations of behavioral norms and value orientations of the individual, forming an aesthetic construct of morality. Meanings are not denied, they are not justified, but are considered from the standpoint of reason, while fading into the background. The role of religion is not just to transmit information and find answers to emerging challenges, but to form a worldview and value orientations, which becomes a determining factor in human behavior. Thus, religion and values remain inextricably linked.

Key words: religions in the media sphere, religious journalism, religious polemics, missionary media activity, ethics in the media sphere, religion and values.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.019

Z.A. DADAEV Graduate student in the Faculty of Journalism IGSU RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE SPECIFICS OF THE IMPACT OF MASS MEDIA ON THE FORMATION OF POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS OF YOUNG PEOPLE

This article examines the material of new mass media and provides an analysis of the main concepts of influencing the consciousness of young people. The novelty of the article lies in its comprehensive coverage of the system of methods of influence and various manipulations used by journalists in conditions of freedom of speech. Ways to solve an urgent problem of our time are proposed: media education, development of a strategy for preventing the unwanted negative influence of the mass media.

The flow of information that has befallen people has radically changed the quality of life, and it is quite natural that the present time is considered to be informational. Information is both a wealth and an urgent problem of our time, which must be understood, which must be assessed and analyzed in a comprehensive manner, so as not to miss a single significant detail regarding such an important phenomenon, or rather a tool for influencing the consciousness of the public. Keywords: mass media, strategies, freedom of speech, journalist, methods of influence.

Key words: mass media, strategies, freedom of speech, journalist, methods of influence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.018

I.S. PALITAY Candidate of Social Sciences, leading researcher, State Academic University for the Humanities; assistant professor of the Department of Sociology and Psychology of Politics, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

A.S. DEVOCHKINA Master’s degree student of the Faculty of Political Science of Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

YOUNG CITIZENS PERCEIVE THE SYSTEM OF RECRUITING POLITICAL LEADERS IN MODERN RUSSIA (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE YAROSLAVL REGION

In the current political system in Russia, the issues of involving young people in the country’s social and political activities and identifying leadership potential through the current system of recruiting political leaders are increasing their urgency every year. Youth political leadership plays a key role in shaping the future political development of the country, which is why the prospects for its development become a strategic priority of our state. Young people’s perception of the existing system of seeking and selecting political leaders through competitive practices reveals a correlation between the breadth of dissemination of these mechanisms and the level of involvement of the younger generation. The article is a description of the results of the study, the main purpose of which was to identify ideas of youth of Yaroslavl region about the main mechanisms that are used to identify and support potential political leaders among youth. To achieve this, the authors conducted empirical research using the in-depth interview method. The respondents were young people between the ages of 18 and 35. The results obtained make it possible to draw a conclusion that the channels for recruiting political leaders in modern Russia are perceived by most young people as an opportunity for personal and professional self-realization. Meanwhile, there was a low level of awareness among young yaroslavls about the implementation of federal and regional leadership projects.Тhis should be taken into account in improving strategies for involving young people in the political processes of the country and in forming a new generation of political leaders.

Key words: youth, youth political leadership, recruitment system, leadership contests.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.020

G.A. AKOPYAN Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

MODERN TERRORISM: KEY FEATURES OF DEVELOPMENT AND PROBLEMS OF ITS ERADICATION

Modern terrorism is a current and complex phenomenon on the world stage. Its key development features cover multilateral aspects of the life of societies within national states. The modern world is constantly faced with the threat of international terrorism. International terrorist organizations carry out acts of violence beyond the borders of their home countries, establishing a wide network of connections and penetrating into various areas of life. Therefore, the fight against terrorism requires cooperation between states and the exchange of information.

The viability of criminal groups is ensured thanks to existing self-sufficiency mechanisms. Financial and material support for interested actors in world politics remains one of the key problems that states are struggling with, creating measures to suppress sponsorship channels.

Modern terrorists actively use advanced technologies to plan and carry out acts of violence. The Internet and social media have become important communication tools for coordinating and recruiting new members. Crimes committed by terrorists in cyberspace pose a serious threat, since they can use cyber attacks to cause damage to infrastructure, the state, and organizations.

Key words: terrorism, terrorist groups, terrorist financing, illegal violence.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.023

V.A. TROFIMOV Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

SAKHALIN OBLAST AS AN ETHNOPOLITICAL SPACE AND A REGIONAL COMMUNITY

The article "Sakhalin Oblast as an ethnopolitical space and a regional community" reveals the peculiarities of the formation of the ethnopolitical space of the Sakhalin region as well as its state and functioning at the present stage of socio-political development. At the same time, within the framework of this article, attention is also paid to the study of the specifics of the Sakhalin regional community, Sakhalin regional identity and mentality. At the same time, the author draws attention to some phenomena and processes that can potentially pose a danger to this ethnopolitical space and the regional community.

Key words: Sakhalin region, ethnopolitical space, ethnopolitical processes, migration processes, regional identity, regional community, interethnic relations.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.011

M.S. FEDOTOVA Assistant, Department of Political Science and Mass Communications, Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Bachelor's and Master's degree graduate National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia

THE POLICY OF COMMERCIALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN RUSSIA: CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL DIMENSIONS

In the context of globalization and the strengthening of market relations, Russian higher education is undergoing a phase of significant transformations, with commercialization being a central aspect. This study focuses on analyzing the specifics of commercialization in Russian higher education, emphasizing the cultural and historical aspects that shape the unique context of this process. The primary goal of the article is to identify and describe the historical and cultural peculiarities that hinder the development of commercialization in the educational sphere. To achieve these objectives, methods such as in-depth interviews with leading experts in higher education and analysis of current trends in this area were employed. The results indicated that the historical legacy of the Soviet period and the specific features of the national mentality significantly influence the perception and implementation of the commercialization concept. The conclusions of the study emphasize that for further development of commercialization, it is necessary to consider both the positive and negative aspects of this process, relying on a deep understanding of the cultural and historical peculiarities of Russian society.

Key words: commercialization of education, educational policy, higher education, private universities.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.022

E.P. MAKAROV Candidate of Historical Sciences, associate Professor of the department Philosophy, social sciences and humanities, Samara State Technical University, Samara, Russia

V.V. FEDOTOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, associate Professor of the department Philosophy, social sciences and humanities, Samara State Technical University, Samara, Russia

IMPACT OF THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR 1754-1763 TO ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF VIRGINIA IN THE MID-18TH CENTURY

The study focuses on studying the political and economic development of Virginia on the eve and during the French and Indian War of 1754-1763, as well as changes in the post-war period, when the difference in the relationship between the authorities of the metropolis and the local community of the colony became increasingly noticeable. A separate subject of analysis is the connection between the pre-war and war periods of development of the colonial trade and financial sphere and its individual system-forming elements.

Key words: French and Indian War, political elite, political nation, Great Britain, North America, colonial politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.032

LI YAWEN Postgraduate, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

CHINA-KAZAKHSTAN RELATIONS WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THEINITIATIVE “ONE BELT, ONE ROAD”

Kazakhstan is a Central Asian country with the largest economy, the highest level of development and the strongest comprehensive national force. It is also the first Central Asian country to unite with China in the framework of the Belt and Road Cooperation initiative and cooperate in the field of production facilities. The idea is substantiated that from the beginning of the establishment of diplomatic relations to the present, China and Kazakhstan have achieved a great leap in development. There is mutual trust in politics and mutually beneficial business cooperation between the two countries. Together with the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiative “Belt and Road” forms the basic concept of the initiative “Belt and Road”. The “One Belt and One Road” initiative is not only a global strategy, an urgent topic, but also contains many specific areas of cooperation. Kazakhstan is the only way to develop the Belt and Road to the west, as well as the first and most active country to support the initiative “Belt and Road”. Based on the study, China and Kazakhstan actively cooperate in many fields, such as industry, energy, security and humanities, it has been established that Kazakhstan is an important fulcrum for the development of China and adjacent regions in the western direction. The article touches on the topic mainly outlines the China–Kazakhstan relations within the framework of the “One Belt, One Road” initiative.

Key words: China, Kazakhstan, China-Kazakhstan relations, One Belt and One Road, Nurly Zhol.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.021

M.P. TELENGA Candidate of Historical Science, Associate Professor Department of Foreign Regional Studies and Diplomaсy, Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russia

I.V. PROKOPETS Bachelor of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies and Diplomacy, Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russia

YU.I. NEFYODOVA Bachelor of the Department of Foreign Regional Studies and Diplomacy, Kuban State University, Krasnodar, Russia

THE PROBLEM OF VULNERABILITY OF RUSSIAN BUSINESS IN TRADE AND ECONOMIC RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CHINA

The article discusses the difficulties encountered by Russian businessmen in connection with the sanctions pressure and the reorientation to the east. The specifics of doing business for Chinese companies in Russia and their ways of regulation by the Russian authorities, as well as the problems of Russian companies entering the domestic market of the People's Republic of China. Bilateral contacts between representatives of the states and their impact on the creation of joint instruments for the quantitative and qualitative expansion of bilateral economic ties were also analyzed. The strengths and weaknesses of Russian companies in competition in both Russia and China were studied, as well as the impact of e-commerce as the main tool for successful business not only in China, but also the interaction of Chinese businessmen with Russian marketplaces. The problem of erroneous perception of cultural realities and business practices in Asia, in China, and the personnel shortage of specialized specialists in Russian business was considered. The impact of sanctions pressure on bilateral trade and economic ties and the resulting threats to business were also considered.

Key words: Business, Russia, China, trade turnover, sanctions, marketing, marketplace.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.024

А.А. ALAUDINOV Candidate of Political Sciences, commander of the AKHMAT special forces ‒ deputy commander of the 2nd Army Corps of the 8th Army, Southern Military District, Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

CONCEPTS AND APPROACHES OF CONDUCTING HYBRID WARS OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA

The main concepts and key approaches of conducting hybrid wars of the People's Republic of China are discussed in the article. Both the theoretical developments of Chinese specialists in this field and examples of China's specific use of hybrid warfare tools are of interest.

The purpose of the research is to identify the concepts and campaigns of China's hybrid wars.

The objectives include the following: 1) identification the key provisions of Chinese concepts of hybrid warfare; 2) show the main means and methods on which China relies in hybrid wars.

Results. The key provisions of the concept of "unrestricted warfare", which acts as a Chinese analogue of the concept of hybrid wars, are revealed. The specificity of the concept of "systems confrontation" and its features are shown. The main provisions of the concept of the "System Destruction Warfare" are defined. The research revealed that China places the main emphasis in hybrid wars on their non-kinetic forms, including cybernetic, sanctions and counter-sanctions means and methods. It is shown that China pays special attention to cyber intelligence and cyber attacks. In response to the unfriendly, from Beijing's point of view, actions of the United States and South Korea, China also applies sanctions measures. It has been established that Chinese experts pay considerable attention to the confrontation in the information sphere.

Conclusions. The People's Republic of China, having certain theoretical developments and practical experience in the use of means and methods of hybrid warfare, relies mainly on non-kinetic forms of hybrid warfare. At the same time, China has no experience in conducting kinetic hybrid wars, including the use of "color revolutions" or the use of irregular formations as the main tool for achieving military and political goals.

Key words: China, hybrid wars, "unrestricted warfare", "systems confrontation", "system destruction warfare", non-kinetic hybrid wars, kinetic hybrid wars.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.025

DONG DAN Senior lecturer (master's degree) of the Russian Language Center of the, Sanya University, China

THE EVOLUTION OF DIPLOMATIC RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CHINA: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT

This article analyzes the current state and prospects for the development of international relations between China and Russia in the context of the Ukrainian crisis of 2024, as well as their interaction within international organizations such as BRICS and the Shanghai Cooperation Organization. The main focus is on the economic and political aspects of bilateral relations, particularly deepening economic ties against the backdrop of the crisis in Ukraine, strategic partnership in international organizations, and differences in approaches to foreign policy. The impact of these relations on the global geopolitical situation is discussed, as well as the potential for coordination of efforts within BRICS and the SCO to address common challenges such as separatism, terrorism, and illegal drug trafficking. Problems and prospects of using the yuan in economic relations and its influence on international currency relations are analyzed.

Key words: China, Russia, BRICS, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Ukrainian crisis, economic ties, political partnership, international relations, yuan, geopolitics, foreign policy, international sanctions, military-political cooperation, separatism, terrorism, illegal drug trafficking.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.027

WANG XINYUE Master student at the Russian Language Institute of the Dalian University of Foreign Languages, Dalian, China

WANG GANG Associate professor, PhD, graduate supervisor, School of Russian, Dalian University of Foreign Languages, Dalian, China

SINO-RUSSIAN RELATIONS UNDER THE "BELT AND ROAD" INITIATIVE

The Belt and Road is a win-win cooperation path proposed by China to promote common development and achieve common prosperity. Under the Belt and Road Initiative, China-Russia relations have been further consolidated. The two countries have become more economically integrated, have deepened political mutual trust, have enjoyed close bilateral cooperation in various fields, and have flourished people-to-people and cultural exchanges.

Key words: the Belt and Road, China-Russian relations, economic integration, political mutual trust, people-to-people exchanges.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.028

I.KH. ZINNUROV Head of the Representative office of Rossotrudnichestvo in the Republic of Azerbaijan, Russian Information and Cultural Center in Baku, Councelor of the Russian Embassy in Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan

FEATURES OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF SOCIO-POLITICAL, SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL COOPERATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND AZERBAIJAN AT THE PRESENT STAGE

Within the framework of the development of humanitarian and cultural cooperation of the Russian Federation in the Republic of Azerbaijan at the present stage, the following areas can be distinguished: Socio-political events on modern and historical issues, Popularization of classical and modern Russian culture, Strengthening the position of the Russian language, Promotion of Russian education and support for scientific and technical cooperation.

Key words: Russia, Azerbaijan, socio-political interaction, scientific and educational cooperation, Russian language, scientific and technical cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.029

KURUMA YUNUSSA Postgraduate student of the Department of Public Policy and History State and Law Institute of Law of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia named after Patrice Lumuba, Moscow, Russia

KABA LAYE Postgraduate student of the Department of Comparative Political Science Law Institute of the Russian University Friendship of Peoples named after Patrice Lumuba, Moscow, Russia

TOURE GNALEN Master's student at the Department of International Relations Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences of the Russian Peoples' Friendship University named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

FORMATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF FOREIGN POLICY STRATEGIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF GUINEA

The article reveals the foreign policy strategy of the Republic of Guinea from the moment of independence from France in 1958 to the present time. The article focuses on the current foreign policy guidelines of the Republic of Guinea and how they change depending on who governs the country.

The bilateral relations of the Republic of Guinea with Russia, the USA, the EU countries and China. Author analyzes the political and economic strategies of Guinea's partnerships with international partners.

The issue of regional cooperation the Republic of Guinea is also considered. It`s as the most important vector of Guinea`s international activities. The article reveals Guinea's participation in regional projects and organizations, such as the African Union (AU), the Economic Community of West African Countries (ECOWAS), etc. The problems faced by the Republic of Guinea in its foreign policy activities are also analyzed.

Key words: Republic of Guinea, foreign policy, Africa, France, Russia, USA, economic cooperation, regional cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.030

LAN YUJING PhD student, Department of Comparative Political Science Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences Russian Peoples' Friendship University, Moscow, Russia

THE BASIC LOGIC OF MODERNIZING THE POLITICAL SYSTEM OF CHINA

This article explores the basic principles and directions of modernization of the political system of China. The article analyzes the evolution of the Chinese political system since the reform and opening up under the leadership of the CCP and its impact on modern political processes. Based on an analysis of current documents and scientific literature, the article examines key aspects of modernization, including strengthening the role of the CCP, developing the rule of law, improving public administration and improving mechanisms for citizen participation in decision-making. The author identifies important trends in modern political practice, such as strengthening centralized government, expanding the government's social responsibility and the active use of modern information technologies to improve governance. The article also discusses the challenges and obstacles facing the process of modernizing China's political system, including the need to balance stability and reform, as well as ensuring legitimacy and transparency of power.

Key words: Chinese political system, institutional advantages, logic, Chinese Communist Party.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.031

E.KH. NASIROV Deputy of the National Assembly of the Republic of Azerbaijan Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Director of the Institute for Political Studies Academy of Public Administration at President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, Baku, Azerbaijan

T.A. YASHKOVA Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology, Academy of Labor and Social Relations, Moscow, Russia

A.M. ALIYEV Graduate student of the Department of Philosophy and Sociology Educational institution of trade unions of higher education "Academy of Labor and Social Relations", Moscow, Russia

AZERBAIJAN AT THE PRESENT STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT: A NEW VECTOR

The authors note that ensuring sustainable and inclusive development and expanding democratic institutions is the main priority of state policy in Azerbaijan. The article focuses on the development of civil society and the implementation of the e-government model in the republic, and also makes an attempt to clarify the essence of the steps taken in this area and evaluate them. The development of civil society and digitalization of management in modern Azerbaijan is shown.

Key words: reforms, civil society, e-government, public administration, digitalization, Azerbaijan.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.033

S.S. PISARENKO Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

STRENGTHENING AUSTRALIA'S MILITARY CAPABILITIES IN THE IPR

This article examines the current course of the Australian government to build up its military potential in the Indo-Pacific region throughout the 20th century and currently. The Australian government, being in a constant state of conflict among the political elites, is trying to determine which of the hegemons in the IPR is more profitable for it to cooperate with. The article analyzed official statements by heads of state, representatives of the ministries of foreign affairs, and ministries of defense. The study found that tensions within the Australian government stemmed from Australia's obligations under treaties dating back to the Second World War, as many of them often involved the state in conflicts that were at odds with its own national interests. At the end of the 20th century. Australia has been able to establish itself as a reliable economic partner in the IPR, which has given the Australian government the freedom to choose its own path. At the present stage, Australia is combining a strategy to ensure the integrity of its state by purchasing the latest technologies for its offensive forces, in the form of modern communications technologies, long-range missiles for its destroyers and carrier-based aircraft. Over the past three years, due to the tense situation in the world, the Australian establishment has spent a significant amount of money on the purchase of both ready-made military weapons and licenses for their creation within their state. Equipping ships with weapons of this class not only indicates that the state will patrol maritime trade routes, but will also use them for something more.

Key words: Australia in the ITR, Australian military forces, Australia and the USA in the IPR, Australia and China in the IPR.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.034

А.А. SVIRIDOV Graduate student of the Faculty of Global Processes Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

MAIN TRENDS IN THE GLOBAL ENERGY MARKET

This article discusses the main development trends and problems of the global energy market. The issues of increasing the share of the Asian region in energy consumption, the development of national oil companies, the influence of the American “shale revolution” on global energy and the relationship of the concept of sustainable development with energy, as well as the increasing politicization of international relations are considered.

Key words: shift in energy consumption centers, national oil companies, technological progress, shale oil, renewable energy sources, politicization of international relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.035

S.G. SKUTINA Leading specialist of the Department of Postgraduate and Doctoral Studies of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

I.V. GERASIMOVA Candidate of Economic Sciences, employee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

M.V. AFONIN Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Socio-Political Institutions, Processes and Technologies of the Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

V.O. GRISHIN Deputy Head of the Department of Internal Audit, Licensing and Accreditation of Educational Programs, Management of Organization and Quality Control of Educational Activities, State University of Education, Moscow, Russia

MAIN DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVEMENT OF STATE POLICY ON VOLUNTARY RESETTLEMENT OF COMPATRIOTS FROM ABROAD

The study proposes new approaches to the implementation of state policy on the voluntary resettlement of compatriots. The resettlement of compatriots as an integral part of the state's migration policy allows us to implement some strategic tasks of managing external migration processes related to the development of human capital. State policy in this area can be considered as an effective tool for the return and attraction to the state of citizens in demand by the economy and ready for faster integration into the host society. In this regard, the practical part of the implementation of the resettlement policy of modern Russia requires closer attention to the resettlement of compatriots from unfriendly countries, as well as the creation of mechanisms for the resettlement of foreigners who are ready for integration into Russian society with a close cultural code. The implementation of these mechanisms is possible in the context not only within the framework of institutional transformations, or the formal-legal method characteristic of adjusting migration legislation, but also comparativist, which involves the selection and co-optation of the most successful resettlement practices.

Key words: migration, migration policy, state policy, compatriots, human capital.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.036

А.А. SPASOV Ph.D. in Political Science, Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education «Russian University of Economics named after G.V. Plekhanov», Senior Lecturer at the Department of Political Analysis and socio-psychological processes, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE DAYTON ACCORDS AS A FUNDAMENTAL DOCUMENT IN THE SETTLEMENT OF THE ETHNOPOLITICAL CONFLICT IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

This article analyzes the key principles of the Dayton Accords, which served as the basis for the settlement of the ethnopolitical conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Taking into account the specifics of the internal political confrontation, as well as attempts to exert foreign policy influence on the country, it is possible to assess the actions of the parties aimed at resolving the ethnopolitical conflict in Bosnia and Herzegovina. At the end of the article, the author notes that thanks to the active participation of the international community, the Dayton Agreements were signed, and this put an end to the open confrontation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, but at the same time, a number of internal contradictions remain today, to resolve which it is necessary to develop a unified and balanced position of all interested parties in the state.

Key words: the Dayton Accords, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the ethnopolitical conflict, the Balkans, the peace treaty.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.037

ILIOPOULOU ARETI Researcher, Department of Comparative Political Science, RUDN University named after P. Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

A.I. STENKO Teacher, Institute of Foreign Languages, RUDN University named after P. Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

INTERPARLIAMENTARY ASSEMBLY ON ORTHODOXY: 30 YEAR-LONG SUCCESS STORY OF RELIGIOUS AND PARLIAMENTARY DIPLOMACY SYNERGY AND A PROMISING PLATFORM FOR DIALOGUE IN THE NEW POLITICAL REALITY

The article examines history of interaction between the legislative bodies of the member countries of the Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy (IAO), that over 30 years of cooperation managed to turn this format into a bright and unique example of the synergy of religious and parliamentary diplomacies. The paper analyzes reasons and circumstances that led to the forced de facto freezing of participation in the activities of the structure of such important members as Belarus, Syria and Russia. Authors study the relevant official documents of the IAO (transcripts of annual General Assemblies, minutes of meetings of the International Secretariat, newsletters, etc.) and of the specialized parliamentary structures of the organization’s states (statements of national delegations, declarations, press releases). This work also provides an assessment of the prospects for overcoming the current near-crisis situation in the IAO with the help of mechanisms and tools of both parliamentary and religious diplomacy.

Key words: Interparliamentary Assembly on Orthodoxy, interparliamentary cooperation, religious diplomacy, parliamentary diplomacy, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian foreign policy, Greek foreign policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.038

A.E. TIKHONOV Postgraduate student of the School of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

ENVIRONMENTAL AGENDA IN THE STRATEGIES OF GLOBAL CITIES: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF LONDON AND NEW YORK POLICIES

The article analyzes the environmental programs of global cities – London and New York. The author compares the goals of the cities' environmental strategies with the UN Sustainable Development Goals. The author of the article concludes that the measures taken by the authorities of London and New York, almost completely coincide, and this is primarily due to the fact that when developing a common environmental strategy, the governments of the two cities were guided by the UN Sustainable Development Goals. From the described measures, the most successful initiatives of the London and New York authorities are highlighted, which can be used in the development of environmental strategies by other global cities authorities.

Key words: global city, London, New York, environmental strategy, UN Sustainable Development Goals, global environmental problem.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.026

V.N. KOBZAREV Student of the Department of International Relations and Customs Affairs, Baikal State University (BSU), Irkutsk, Russia

Y.A. SHITIKOVA Senior lecturer of the Department of Russian and Intercultural Communication, Baikal State University (BSU), Irkutsk, Russia

JAPANESE AND CHINESE PUBLIC OPINION ON THE OWNERSHIP OF THE SENKAKU/DIAOYU ISLANDS

Often international conflicts between countries are territorial disputes, where each of the conflicting parties seeks the desired results, there is a clash of interests. In the co-modern world there are many dozens of territorial disputes that have not been finalized so far, some of them are in the cold or hot phase of the conflict. The governments of the conflicting states in most cases take a clear and confident position on the disputed territories, but it is important to realize that the government's position on foreign policy does not always reflect the position and sentiments of ordinary citizens.

In this article we will consider the public position of Japan and China on the ownership of the Senkaku/Diaoyu islands, which, like many territorial disputes, are of a long-term and unregulated nature. It is necessary to find out whether the citizens of both countries hold the same positions pursued by the national governments of the states or whether the positions differ.

Key words: PRC, Japan, islands, territorial conflict, Senkaku, Diaoyu.

REVIEWS AND SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.109.4.039

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, editor-in-chief of the publishing house "Science Today" Moscow, Russia

FOUNDATIONS OF RUSSIAN STATEHOOD: ON THE QUESTION OF THE USE OF SOME CURRENT SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS IN DEVELOPING A TRAINING COURSE

The article attempts an analytical review of some current publications in scientific journals from the list of the Higher Attestation Commission and the use of these materials in the formation of a bibliographic base for the training course “Fundamentals of Russian Statehood”. This study is a continuation of the materials published by the author in the journal “Issues of National and Federal Relations” 2024. No. 1. The article provides a review of scientific publications by Russian and foreign authors touching on some aspects of the history of the Great Patriotic War. From a short review of scientific publications it follows that these problems for researchers are relevant, scientifically significant and can become important materials for the educational course “Fundamentals of Russian Statehood” in higher educational institutions.

Key words: Russian statehood, Great Patriotic War, nation-building, Russia.

Scientific Journal “Issues of National and Federative Relations”. Volume 14. Issue 3 (108), 2024

CONTENTS

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

  • Syzdykova Zh.S. The Main Stages of the Settlement of the Astrakhan Turkmens and their Ethnographic Features
  • Hasanov M.R. On the Historical Roots of the Unity of the Dagestani Peoples
  • Gerasimov M.L. Transformation of the Russian Empire Foreign Policy Position on the Greek Issue in the Period from 1807 to 1832
  • Gusev D.V. “It Seems to US that there is No Benefit from the Current Citizenship of the Greeks...” On the Issue of Relations Between Russians and Greeks on the Island of Paros in 1771
  • Gusev P.Yu. Post-War State of the Agricultural Industry and Features of its Restoration in the Occupied Territories (by the Example of the Bryansk Region)
  • Kovalenko O.Yu. The Experience of Forming a System of Physical Education in Suvorov Military Schools in 1943-1950
  • Magomedova E.M. Tats – Historical Ethnos of the Caucasus
  • Orlova D.I. Role of the Delegations of the USSR, Ukrainian SSR and BSSR in Resolving the Problem of Refugees and Displaced Persons (1945-1946)
  • Temchuk E.I. Russia and the Peoples of Asia Minor in the Conditions of the First World War on the Caucasian Front
  • Izotov I.A., Chigrin M.V. Training Process of Professional Staff for Advocacy in Pre-Revolutionary and Post-Revolutionary Russia (Based on Materials of the Provinces of the Middle Volga Region)

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

  • Lebedev I.Yu. Problems of Property in the Philosophy of New Times in the Works of T. Hobbes, J. Locke and Hegel G.-W.F.
  • Pankov A.V. Modern Elitology: on the Way from Aristocracy to Non-Democracy

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

  • Nikolaev N.P. Anthropocene – State of Emergency – Sovereignty
  • Stoliar V.D. Practice of Electronic Voting Through the Lens of Technocratic Theories
  • Chistov I.S., Kolpakov M.V. Use of Information Resources in the Formation of Reputational Capital on the Example of RF Subjects (Republic of Bashkortostan, Republic of Tatarstan, Chuvash Republic)
  • Urtaeva E.B. Formation of a New Political Leader: the Role of Image, Communications, and Strategy in Modern Politics
  • Devterev V.V. The Development of the System of State Regional Government on the Example of the Rostov Region
  • Asatryan B.A. Modeling of Political Governance in the Context of Changing Paradigms of Scientific Rationality
  • Atamanenko A.A. Comics Culture as a National Memory Medium: Context, Features, Foreign Experience

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

  • Pochinalina L.N., Maryina A.A., Olshanskaya L.V. Main Stages of Competitive Production in Bankruptcy of Legal Entities
  • Shao Zixuan. Priorities and Directions for the Development of Anti-Corruption Work in China in the Next Five Years

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

  • Alaudinov A.A. Modern Approaches to Conducting Hybrid Wars in the USA, Great Britain, France, Germany
  • Vakhitov R.R. Concepts of Deterrence in Cyberspace
  • Liangbobo. The System of International Relations in the Context of the Idea of a Multipolar World
  • Seagal D.E. The Role of Transnational Corporations in Shaping US Foreign Policy
  • Tabeykina E.K., Khutorova L.M. Lobbying of US Religious Organizations
  • Akopyan G.A. Modern US Doctrine in the Fight Against International Terrorism: Problems and Prospects
  • Wang Feixiang. Current Problems and Prospects for the Development of Russia and China
  • Vlasov M.S. Features of the Information Confrontation Between Russia and the USA in the Hybrid War
  • Tao Zilong. Kazakhstan's Foreign Policy and Sino-Kazakh, Sino-Russian and Sino-American Relations
  • Pisarenko S.S. India's Strategic Balancing in the Indo-Pacific Region
  • Xu Hao. The Trend of Globalization: the Rise of Nationalism and the Collapse of Transnational Cooperation
  • Trufanova K.S. Stages of Escalation of Russian-American Relations under the Administration of J. Biden
  • Logvinov D.V. Ideas of L. Mechelin on Russia-Finland Relations
  • Ling Mengyuan. South Caucasus Research: Motivation, Characteristics and Development in Aspect Russian Literature
  • Lu Po Lin. Current Status and Policy Orientation of Illegal Immigration and Refugee Issues in the EU
  • Lian Weiyi. Chinese-Russian International Cooperation in the Field of Education and Youth Development

REVIEWS AND SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS

  • Medvedev N.P. On the Question of Digitalization and Some Modern Trends in the Development of Science and Education

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.001

ZH.S. SYZDYKOVA Doctor of History, Professor, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Institute of Asian and African Studies, Moscow, Russia

THE MAIN STAGES OF THE SETTLEMENT OF THE ASTRAKHAN TURKMENS AND THEIR ETHNOGRAPHIC FEATURES

This article is devoted to the consideration of the settlement of Turkmens living on the territory of Russia since the 19th century, whose main places of settlement were the Stavropol Territory and the Astrakhan region. It is noted that currently Turkmens live compactly in the Volga region of the Astrakhan region, in particular, in the villages of Atal and Funtovo-1 and Funtovo-2. Their number is about 2.5 thousand people. It is emphasized that according to written sources in Russia, Turkmen settlements first appeared in 1653 on the right bank of the Volga River, which then migrated to Stavropol. It is emphasized that the migration took place in two main waves. The descendants of the Igdyr Turkmen, along with the Chovdur and Soyunaji tribes, migrated to Astrakhan from the Mangyshlak peninsula in 1793. It is concluded that the main part of the Turkmen migrated from the Mangyshlak peninsula, and the resettlement process itself took place before the beginning of the 19th century.

Key words: Turkmens, Astrakhan region, tribes, settlement.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.002

M.R. HASANOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Department of History, Dagestan State Pedagogical University named after. R. Gamzatova, Makhachkala, Russia

ON THE HISTORICAL ROOTS OF THE UNITY OF THE DAGESTANI PEOPLES

The article examines the issue of the roots of the unity of the Dagestan highlanders. Based on the principle of historicism, based on data from sources and analysis of existing research, it presents material about the economic, political, cultural roots of the unity of the peoples of Dagestan. A prominent place in the article is occupied by examples of the joint struggle of the Dagestan highlanders against foreign conquerors; the significance of the annexation of Dagestan to Russia in the further development of ties between the Dagestan peoples is noted.

Key words: Dagestan, highlanders, Caucasus, conquerors, Russia, connections, trade, struggle, unity, roots, language.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.003

M.L. GERASIMOV Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia

TRANSFORMATION OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE FOREIGN POLICY POSITION ON THE GREEK ISSUE IN THE PERIOD FROM 1807 TO 1832

The beginning of the 19th century was a difficult, but at the same time full of bright events, period for the foreign policy of the Russian Empire, characterized by two directions: Western and Eastern. The Russian Empire was faced with the task of promoting its interests in the Eastern direction, without allowing damage to the country's interests in the European direction. In this policy, the Greek issue was only part of a complex of foreign policy decisions and processes and did not have the quality of a separate foreign policy direction, and certainly did not represent strategic importance for the foreign policy of the Russian Empire. However, over time, Russia’s foreign policy position on the Greek issue began to change, in connection with the formation of a new European security architecture, as well as the strengthening of the positions of the Russian Empire both in the western and eastern directions. Thus, the purpose of this study is to identify and determine the features of the transformation of Russian foreign policy on the Greek issue. Accordingly, the main objective of the study is to analyze the foreign policy position of the Russian Empire on the Greek issue in three stages: in the pre-revolutionary period from 1807 to 1821, in the revolutionary period from 1821 to 1829, and in the post-revolutionary period from 1830 to 1832. The main research methods are: methods of general source study, historical periodization, as well as the principles of objectivity, comprehensiveness and consistency. In particular, in order to fulfill the objectives, set in the study, the method of historical periodization is used based on the principle of consistency. Based on the results of the work, it was revealed that the position of the Russian Empire on the Greek issue before the revolution was dictated by interests in the European direction, and did not represent a separate foreign policy strategic direction. Only in the 1820s. The Greek question acquired significant significance in the foreign policy of the Russian Empire.

Key words: Foreign policy of the Russian Empire, foreign policy position, the Greek question, the Greek revolution.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.004

D.V. GUSEV Chief Specialist of the Russian State Naval Archives, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

“IT SEEMS TO US THAT THERE IS NO BENEFIT FROM THE CURRENT CITIZENSHIP OF THE GREEKS...” ON THE ISSUE OF RELATIONS BETWEEN RUSSIANS AND GREEKS ON THE ISLAND OF PAROS IN 1771

The article analyzes the position of Greek society in the initial period of the establishment of the protectorate of the Russian Empire over the islands of the Archipelago in January-March 1771 and the formation of the so-called “Archipelago Principality” in the conditions of the Russian-Turkish War of 1769-1774. There is a strong opinion in historiography that relations between the Russian military and the local population were good, however, documents from the Russian State Naval Archives also show a number of conflict situations between the peoples of the same faith in Russia and Greece. The office of the Russian squadron located in the Archipelago has both official documents calling on the Greeks to come under the protection of Empress Catherine II and executed in solemn and friendly tones, as well as private complaints from the Greeks about the periodic cruel treatment of Russian soldiers towards them. A comparison of these two types of documents suggests the extent to which such conflict cases were perceived as the norm. The purpose of the work is, based on the cited sources, to analyze the features of Russian-Greek relations on the island of Paros in the context of the First Archipelago Expedition. The methodology of the work is based on the principle of historicism, scientific objectivity and consistency. Historical-comparative and microhistorical methods are used as a methodological basis. In the process of research, the author comes to the conclusion that cases of oppression of the local population as a whole did not have a significant impact on the perception of the role of Russians in the war with the Turks, and the Greeks themselves continued to see Russia as a friendly country capable of continuing to provide assistance and protection to their coreligionists.

Key words: First Archipelago Expedition, Admiral G.A. Spiridov, Count A.G. Orlov, Ottoman Greece, history of the Navy, Russian-Greek relations, Russian State Naval Archives (RSNA).

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.005

P.Yu. GUSEV Graduate student of Bryansk State University named after ak. I.G. Petrovsky, Bryansk, Russia

POST-WAR STATE OF THE AGRICULTURAL INDUSTRY AND FEATURES OF ITS RESTORATION IN THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES (BY THE EXAMPLE OF THE BRYANSK REGION)

This article describes the restoration process of collective farms, state farms and MTS. It describes in detail the damage caused by the invaders and the consequences for the region and the country as a whole. The influence of weather factors on this process and government assistance in this and other issues are also described. In addition, this scientific article uses materials from such prominent researchers as Nicolas Werth and Rudolf Pihoya, as well as materials from the State Archive of the Bryansk Region (GABO). It also outlines the importance of social interaction and unity in the difficult recovery process. Considerable attention is paid to the role of the state and, in particular, political authorities, in coordinating interactions and overall coherence.

Key words: MTS, collective farm, agriculture, revival, assistance.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.006

O.YU. KOVALENKO Lecturer at the Department of Culture, Military University named after Prince Alexander Nevsky of the Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE EXPERIENCE OF FORMING A SYSTEM OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN SUVOROV MILITARY SCHOOLS IN 1943-1950

The article examines and analyzes the experience of forming a system of physical education in Suvorov military schools in 1943-1950. Based on normative legal acts, memoir sources and publications in periodicals, archival materials from the funds of the Russian State Archive of Socio-Political History and the Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, the dynamics of the process of formation in Suvorov military schools of the direction of activity aimed at physical training of pupils is presented, the main problem areas are identified and ways of solving them are shown in the designated historical period.

Key words: Suvorov military school, physical education, physical training, physical development, Suvorov students, sports.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.007

E.M. MAGOMEDOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor Department of History of Dagestan State Pedagogical University named after R. Gamzatov, Makhachkala, Republic of Dagestan, Russia

TATS – HISTORICAL ETHNOS OF THE CAUCASUS

The article is devoted to some issues of the Tat ethnic group. In order to strengthen their positions in Dagestan, the Sasanian rulers resettled the Tato-speaking population from Iran in the early Middle Ages to the settlements of Southern Dagestan, in particular, the Derbent and Tabasaran regions. The Tats were resettled in the village. Zidyan, Bilgadi, Kamakh, Gimeidi, Maragha, etc. The Tat language belongs to the Iranian group of languages.

Key words: Tats, Derbent, Dzharag, Kamakh, Dagestan, Sasanians, culture, language.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.008

D.I. ORLOVA Postgraduate student, Department of Russian History, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

ROLE OF THE DELEGATIONS OF THE USSR, UKRAINIAN SSR AND BSSR IN RESOLVING THE PROBLEM OF REFUGEES AND DISPLACED PERSONS (1945-1946)

The article, based on archival sources and historiographic data, provides a detailed description and detailed analysis of the very initial stage of the work of the delegations of three subjects of international relations (USSR, Ukrainian SSR, BSSR) in the UN Special Committee, which met in London on April 8, 1946, as well as in the subcommittees controlled by the UN. The purpose of the article was to analyze and determine the strategy and tactics of the activities of the Soviet delegations in conditions of confrontation and the division of representatives of 20 countries into two groups, which in some cases and circumstances diplomatically, in others – in the style of realpolitik, declared the differences and irreconcilability of their positions on key issues of the decision problems of refugees and displaced persons in the post-war period.

To study the stated topic, the article used methods such as historicism and objectivity. A comprehensive analysis of documents was carried out in conjunction with comparative research principles. An attempt at terminological analysis was also made.

Thus, the role and activities of the USSR, Ukrainian SSR and BSSR in international politics to resolve the issue of refugees and displaced persons, as one of the vulnerable categories of post-war society, the legislative fixation of their rights at the international level, and the approval of possible options for arranging their destinies were revealed. The article reflects the colossal diplomatic work of the Soviet delegations.

Despite the initial mutual agreement of principles in eliminating the problem of refugees and displaced persons on the part of the three Great Powers, namely, the humane repatriation of citizens, opposition emerged during further discussion of the issue. The policies of the countries concerned were aimed at satisfying personal interests and using human potential for the needs and goals of their country.

Key words: refugees, displaced persons, Special Committee on Refugees and Displaced Persons.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.009

E.I. TEMCHUK Military University of the Ministry of Defense, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIA AND THE PEOPLES OF ASIA MINOR IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE FIRST WORLD WAR ON THE CAUCASIAN FRONT

The purpose of this article is to examine the relationship that developed between the Russian military-civil administration and the national-religious groups inhabiting the regions of Turkey occupied by the Russian Empire during the First World War, as well as to analyze the basic principles of the national policy of the military general government in relation to the local population.

Key words: World War I, Russian Empire, Ottoman Empire, Caucasian Front, civil-military administration, Armenians, Greeks, Turks, Kurds.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.010

I.A. IZOTOV Dissertation of Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

M.V. CHIGRIN Candidate of Historical Sciences, Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I. N. Ulyanov, Ulyanovsk, Russia

TRAINING PROCESS OF PROFESSIONAL STAFF FOR ADVOCACY IN PRE-REVOLUTIONARY AND POST-REVOLUTIONARY RUSSIA (BASED ON MATERIALS OF THE PROVINCES OF THE MIDDLE VOLGA REGION)

This article is devoted to the analysis of the process of training professional personnel in the provinces of the Middle Volga region for the legal profession in pre-revolutionary and post-revolutionary Russia. The authors of the work: examined the systemic process of training sworn attorneys in pre-revolutionary Russia using the example of training professional personnel at the Imperial Kazan University and analyzed the professional competencies of sworn attorneys; the features of the process of training future lawyers in higher educational institutions of post-revolutionary Russia are revealed. The study revealed that, due to the high interest of the population in the legal industry, there was a regular influx of students into educational institutions who wanted to go to work in the legal profession in the future. However, not all graduates of educational institutions later became lawyers due to difficulties with finding employment and reluctance to work for a long time for low wages.

Key words: Advocacy, Imperial Kazan University, sworn attorneys, Simbirsk State University, Middle Volga region.

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.011

I.YU. LEBEDEV Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State Regulation of Economics, Faculty of MIGSU RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

PROBLEMS OF PROPERTY IN THE PHILOSOPHY OF NEW TIMES IN THE WORKS OF T. HOBBES, J. LOCKE AND HEGEL G.-W.F.

The views of T. Hobbes in understanding the role of the state on the problem of justice and property. J. Locke on the state of property in civil society. The doctrine of the “natural” and “civil” state of society. Anthropic principle of the origin and essence of property. Hegel's views on property as the existence of free will. Ownership and production. The role of property in the formation of the type of human personality.

Key words: legal laws and property, justice, freedom, civil society, natural law, property of intellectual work, the existence of free will, alienation of man from the means of production and property, type of human personality, legal law.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.012

A.V. PANKOV Postgraduate student of the South Russian Institute management – branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

MODERN ELITOLOGY: ON THE WAY FROM ARISTOCRACY TO NON-DEMOCRACY

The article examines the processes of institutionalization of elitism as a separate scientific field based on the conceptual provisions of political science, sociology, cultural studies, philosophy and other social sciences that explore the problems of leadership and power relations. The analysis of the transformation of elitist concepts made it possible to identify the main trends in changes in ideas about elites and their role in society, depending on the dominant technological structure. Currently, there is a transition to an information non-democratic society, which determines the emergence of a new type of elites, which can be called digital elites.

Key words: elites, elitology, netocracy, aristocracy, political processes, elitogenesis, circulation of elites.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.013

N.P. NIKOLAEV Professor of the National Research University «Higher School of Economics», Deputy Chairman of the State Duma Committee on Property, Land and Property Relations, Moscow, Russia

ANTHROPOCENE – STATE OF EMERGENCY – SOVEREIGNTY

The article analyzes the impact of socio-political recognition of the onset of the Anthropocene as a new geological epoch on the problem of sovereignty. The author shows that the theory of the onset of the Anthropocene, which postulates the anthropogenic nature of all biogeophysical changes on the planet and is the basis of international climate policy, is becoming part of the global political discourse. The unprecedented changes in the state and history of humanity, expressed by the theory of the Anthropocene, are also becoming an unprecedented political problem. The Anthropocene, as part of the political, has a number of unique characteristics that are capable and tend to completely change existing political paradigms. This leads to a situation that is exceptional in relation to existing norms, which is the justification for a state of emergency. The latter, in turn, challenges sovereignty as such, which cannot but cause a response from nation states. The author shows that a feature of the confrontation between supporters of the Anthropocene theory and adherents of sovereignty is competition for the right to declare a state of emergency. The purpose of the article is to understand the Anthropocene as a new political phenomenon and its impact on the global political space. In this vein, the study represents the first attempt at a scientific analysis of the Anthropocene as part of the political sphere.

Key words: anthropocene, state sovereignty, state of emergency.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.014

V.D. STOLIAR Phd student, IP RAS, Moscow, Russia

PRACTICE OF ELECTRONIC VOTING THROUGH THE LENS OF TECHNOCRATIC THEORIES

The purpose of the article is to consider the practice of remote electronic voting through the prism of technocratic theories. It is technocratic theories, in our opinion, that can serve as the basis for describing the practices of introducing new technologies into public administration.

The work consists of two parts. In the first part, the theoretical basis of technocracy will be analyzed, the definition of the concept, its history and theoretical ideas about technocratic theories that are relevant for the present time will be considered. This part will also examine the concept of scientism as a broader theoretical framework on which technocratic theories are based. The second part of the article examines the practice of electronic voting from the point of view of technocratic theories. Examples of the current use of electronic voting in various countries are described, trends in improving the technology of remote electronic voting are noted, and prospects for further practical use of this technology are presented.

In conclusion, conclusions are drawn about the role played by electronic voting at the current stage of development of human society. The conclusions are presented both from the theoretical concepts discussed in the text of the article and from cases of the practical use of this technology.

Key words: elections, electronic voting, technocratic theories, scientism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.015

I.S. CHISTOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Public Policy and History State and Law Law Institute of the Russian Peoples' Friendship University named after Patrice Lumumba (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

M.V. KOLPAKOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Public Policy and History State and Law Law Institute of the Russian Peoples' Friendship University named after Patrice Lumumba (RUDN University), Moscow, Russia

USE OF INFORMATION RESOURCES IN THE FORMATION OF REPUTATIONAL CAPITAL ON THE EXAMPLE OF RF SUBJECTS (REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN, REPUBLIC OF TATARSTAN, CHUVASH REPUBLIC)

The article studies the peculiarities of the use of information resources in the formation of reputational capital in the subject of the Russian Federation. Digitalization is an important factor in the development of modern regions, affecting their competitiveness and economic growth. The reputation of power is associated with the category of trust, and in relation to political institutions it is considered as a resource of the state's reputational capital and a kind of bridge over the abyss of uncertainty between power and society. In this regard, reputation capital should be considered as a kind of integral indicator of social efficiency of power, ensuring political stability. Positive reputation is an invaluable asset due to the possibility of identification of the subject with the help of values (identities) that have strong social legitimacy. Using the example of the Republic of Bashkortostan, the Republic of Tatarstan and the Chuvash Republic, the authors analyze the impact of information flows on the processes of formation and management of reputation. The article considers key aspects of the use of modern technologies in the sphere of information exchange and their impact on the subjects' reputation strategies. The study includes the analysis of social media, Internet resources and other information platforms in order to identify the specifics of the impact on the reputation of regions. The results of the work can be used for effective management of reputational capital at the level of regional subjects and in the development of strategies to improve the image of these territories.

Key words: information resources, reputation capital, constituent entities of the Russian Federation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.016

E.B. URTAEVA PhD in Politics, associate professor of the Department of Regional Governance and National Politics Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Russian Federation, Odintsovo branch, Odintsovo, Russia

FORMATION OF A NEW POLITICAL LEADER: THE ROLE OF IMAGE, COMMUNICATIONS, AND STRATEGY IN MODERN POLITICS

Subject of research: the role of image, communications, and modern political strategy in the formation of new leaders in Russian politics. Methods: literature review, institutional analysis, critical conceptual analysis of scientific literature about research, survey of experts, in-depth interview. Results: the history and modernity of studying aspects of the formation of a new political leader is considered, the significance of the corresponding work for modern Russian politics is characterized. The concept of the image of a new political leader is presented, and preferences for leadership qualities in the views of youth and professional experts are characterized. The specifics of modern communications in the formation of a new political leader are revealed, considering the opinions of experts, and the need to combine modern and traditional forms and channels of political communication is shown. Current strategies for the formation of a new political leader are presented, and the expert choice of the preferential use of communication strategies is discussed. The research materials can be used in practical work on the formation of new political leaders, their education and political promotion. Conclusions and recommendations: the need to create a unique and attractive image of the new political leader is emphasized. Based on the results of the study, practice-oriented recommendations were proposed on key projections for the formation of a new political leader in modern Russian politics.

Key words: political leader, new political leader, politics of the Russian Federation, image of a politician, mass communications, digital communications, political strategies, political communications.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.017

V.V. DEVTEREV Postgraduate student, South-Russia Institute of Management – Branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SYSTEM OF STATE REGIONAL GOVERNMENT ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE ROSTOV REGION

The article is devoted to the analysis of the history and current state of the system of state regional management on the example of the Rostov region of the Russian Federation. It examines the evolution of regional authorities since the early 1990s, when significant political changes took place that led to the formation of new power structures in response to the loss of the position of the CPSU and the need to adapt to new economic and social conditions. The author analyzes the processes of reorganization of local government in the context of the political and economic crisis, as well as the consequences of the 1993 Constitution of the Russian Federation for regional governance. Special attention is paid to changes in the distribution of powers between the federal center and the regions, the formation of municipal government and the interaction of various levels of government with public and business structures. The article also highlights the conduct of elections and the formation of.

Key words: region, subject, Russian Federation, state, municipal government, federal center.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.018

B.A. ASATRYAN Head of the regional branch of the All-Russian organization "New Formation", Assistant to the Deputy of the Legislative Assembly of the Rostov region, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

MODELING OF POLITICAL GOVERNANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF CHANGING PARADIGMS OF SCIENTIFIC RATIONALITY

The article examines from the point of view of various, inscribed in the relevant substantive and relational ontologies, theoretical and methodological approaches (kratological, structural and functional, institutional, communicative, actor-network, etc.) and their historical genesis, systemic structural and functional elements and organizational principles of political management; theoretical and methodological and applied modeling problems are highlighted political management in modern political science, related to the requirement of objectivity, experimental verification of a scientific hypothesis, the theory of "ideal types", "attribution to value" (M. Weber), etc.; correlations between the change of types of scientific rationality and the evolution of paradigms of political management, which are correlated with the classical, non-classical and post-non-classical paradigm of scientific rationality and the corresponding objects of research of simple linear, complex, self-developing nonlinear socio-political systems, are analyzed.

Key words: political management, theoretical and methodological modeling, types of scientific rationality, simple linear, complex, self-developing nonlinear socio-political systems, ideal type.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.019

А.А. ATAMANENKO Junior researcher, department of political science, Institute of Scientific Information for Social Sciences (INION) RAS, Moscow, Russia

COMICS CULTURE AS A NATIONAL MEMORY MEDIUM: CONTEXT, FEATURES, FOREIGN EXPERIENCE

The article analyzes various aspects of the relationship between comics and political communication, emphasizing their importance as a means of forming national identity. The purpose of the article is to explore the role of comics in preserving and transmitting the historical memory of nations.

The study reveals that comics not only reflect past events and personal stories, but also actively participate in the creation of a collective historical narrative. The article draws attention to the variety of approaches to representing the past in comics, including graphic novels, historical comics, and comics adaptations of constitutions. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the political and educational aspects of comics, identifying their role in teaching citizenship and the formation of critical thinking. The study also highlights the need to develop a methodological framework for the systematic study of comics as a source of national memory. Overall, the article represents an important contribution to the understanding of comics as a means of transmitting and interpreting historical events and the values of national culture.

Key words: collective memory, national identity, mass culture, comics culture, historical memory.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.020

L.N. POCHINALINA Candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor of the department of jurisprudence ANO VO "Moscow International University", Moscow, Russia

A.A. MARYINA Candidate of legal sciences, associate professor of the department of jurisprudence ANO VO "Moscow International University", Moscow, Russia

L.V. OLSHANSKAYA Candidate of historical sciences, associate professor of the department of jurisprudence ANO VO "Moscow International University", Moscow, Russia

MAIN STAGES OF COMPETITIVE PRODUCTION IN BANKRUPTCY OF LEGAL ENTITIES

This article analyzes the current problem of regulating the bankruptcy process within the framework of legislation. The authors examine in detail the key stages of bankruptcy proceedings, emphasizing their importance for ensuring legal clarity and economic stability. The main attention is paid to the need for a bankruptcy procedure, which, according to the authors, is an important tool for maintaining the stable functioning of the country's economy, especially in the context of the increasing number of recorded cases of bankruptcy. The article also highlights the importance of clearly defining the timing of bankruptcy proceedings to ensure the efficiency and predictability of the process. Moreover, attention is drawn to the role and functions of the bankruptcy trustee, who plays a central role in managing the bankruptcy process, including asset valuation, debt management and distribution of funds to creditors. The procedure for satisfying creditors' claims and the payment procedure are also covered in detail, since these aspects are key points affecting the interests of all participants in the process. Overall, the article provides a comprehensive analysis of the bankruptcy procedure, highlighting its complexity and complexity, as well as its importance for economic progress and legal protection for market participants. It is concluded that bankruptcy proceedings are an effective measure of legislative regulation that plays a key role in creating a favorable business environment, proportionately satisfying the claims of creditors and maintaining the economic stability of the country. At the same time, it is emphasized that bankruptcy proceedings not only help resolve financial difficulties, but also ensure a fair distribution of resources between creditors. Thus, the article contributes to the development of the discussion about the role of bankruptcy proceedings in the bankruptcy of legal entities and can serve as the basis for further analysis and development of various strategies in this area.

Key words: bankruptcy, bankruptcy trustee, creditor, bankruptcy estate, Bankruptcy Law.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.021

SHAO ZIXUAN Graduate student of Moscow State University, Higher School of Cultural Policy and Management in the Humanities, Moscow, Russia

PRIORITIES AND DIRECTIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF ANTI-CORRUPTION WORK IN CHINA IN THE NEXT FIVE YEARS

What is the biggest threat to political parties in any country? This is corruption. The “Resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China on the Major Achievements and Historical Experience of the Party's Hundred-Year Struggle” states unequivocally: “Corruption is the greatest threat to the long-term governance of the Party, and fighting corruption is the most important task. This is a political struggle that cannot and should not be lost” [1]. The General Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China recently published the "Work Plan of the Central Anti-Corruption Coordination Group (2023-2027)" (hereinafter referred to as the "Plan"). It explains the guiding ideology of work for the next five years, and also clarifies the requirements for investigating and solving problems of corruption by the Party Central Committee. Similar plans have existed before, so the question arises: why does this plan deserve more attention from the global anti-corruption academic community? Understanding and studying this issue is critical for today's anti-corruption scholars and makes its analysis the purpose of this article. To achieve it, the following tasks are being solved: the features of the Central Coordination Group for the Fight against Corruption are determined; characterized by the Plan and the key areas of its application. Based on the study, the following conclusions were drawn: firstly, China’s anti-corruption campaign is unlikely to be softened, let alone stopped; secondly, the current anti-corruption campaign is different from the past. In the next few years, China will strengthen its management of new types of corruption and hidden corruption; Thirdly, the goal of the fight against corruption is to eliminate both its symptoms and root causes.

Key words: China, planning, Central Anti-Corruption Coordination Group, anti-corruption, government.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.022

А.А. ALAUDINOV Candidate of Political Sciences, commander of the AKHMAT special forces ‒ deputy commander of the 2nd Army Corps of the 8th Army, Southern Military District, Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

MODERN APPROACHES TO CONDUCTING HYBRID WARS IN THE USA, GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, GERMANY

This paper explores the concepts of hybrid warfare of four NATO member countries: USA, Great Britain, France and Germany. The use of means and methods of hybrid warfare is considered by these countries as an alternative to the means and methods of traditional wars and armed conflicts.

The purpose of this work is to identify the most important approaches in the hybrid wars of four key NATO countries. Research objectives: 1) to identify the key features of the concepts of hybrid wars of the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany; 2) to show which methods and means of hybrid wars are of interest to these states.

Methodology. In addition to general scientific methods, including analysis, synthesis, induction and deduction, the study used comparative and systematic approaches, as well as document analysis.

Results. The main results of the study include the identified approaches in the hybrid wars of the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany. It has been revealed that the United States uses methods and means of non-kinetic and kinetic types of hybrid warfare and uses them on a global scale. The United Kingdom, France and Germany are also active participants in hybrid wars, especially in the cognitive and cyber spheres.

Conclusions. The developed concepts and practical developments of hybrid wars are actively applied by the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany against Russia, supporting the Kiev regime and providing it with comprehensive support in an attempt to inflict a strategic defeat on it. Counteraction measures on the part of Russia are proposed to neutralize the means and methods of hybrid warfare used against it by NATO countries, primarily information and psychological operations.

Key words: hybrid wars, USA, Great Britain, France, Germany, information and psychological operations, cognitive wars, cyber wars.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.023

R.R. VAKHITOV Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

CONCEPTS OF DETERRENCE IN CYBERSPACE

The article is devoted to a current topic in the field of development of cyber technologies in the modern world, namely the concepts of deterrence in the cyberspace field. It is noted that at the beginning of the 21st century, digitalization is forming new guidelines in the field of warfare in all spheres: ground, air, space. The study develops general concepts and rules for deterrence of states and, in particular, reviews the concept of deterrence in cyberspace. The analysis establishes that the concept of cyber deterrence differs significantly from the classical concepts of deterrence in nuclear or other areas. It turns out that in the field of cyberspace it is important not only to communicate clearly, but also to demonstrate the effectiveness of one’s cyber capabilities. The article shows that not only our capabilities as an aggressor state, but also, in particular, the circumstances of the defending side are crucial for the deterrence effect. Her exposure to threats is largely determined by how he discovered his vulnerability. This approach provides not only objective protection from cyber threats, but also the auxiliary impact of threats. Therefore, strategic improvement of resilience in the states of their system remains necessary.

Key words: cyber technologies, international relations, cyber security, cyber threats, deterrence concepts.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.024

LIANGBOBO Graduate student, International Relations of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, History of international relations and foreign policy, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, China

THE SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE IDEA OF A MULTIPOLAR WORLD

This article presents theoretical l approaches to assess the creation of multipolarity of this world in the context of international relations. The purpose of the article is to determine the advantages of the system of international relations built on the principle of multipolarity in comparison with the unipolar system. Methods used in this article: the comparative method, method of political analysis, historical method. The results of the study showed that the multipolar system of international relations is more promising, because the multipolar model of the world order corresponds to the interests of all countries in the process of globalization. The author of the article, comparing the multipolar world with unipolar one, concludes that multipolarity is the main factor in the geopolitical shape of the modern world, because it promotes the development of political, economic and cultural interactions between countries and peoples.

Key words: international relations, multipolarity, unipolarity, bipolarity, globalization, hegemony.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.025

D.E. SEAGAL Graduate student, Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

THE ROLE OF TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS IN SHAPING US FOREIGN POLICY

The article examines the influence of globalization and technological innovations on the strategies of transnational corporations (TNCs) in the modern economy. The authors analyze the role of TNCs as key players on the international stage, emphasizing their significant contribution to research and development activities, which in many cases surpass the R&D budgets of entire countries. The article also discusses the shift in the balance between traditional factors of production and the new focus on human capital and information technologies as key elements in creating competitive advantage. Furthermore, it considers the theoretical and historical context of TNC development and their role in global politics, as well as the influence of the media, particularly the «CNN effect», on shaping public opinion in the context of the Ukrainian crisis and perceptions of Russia.

Key words: globalization, transnational corporations, R&D, information economy, technological progress, human capital, competitive advantages, global politics, CNN effect, Ukrainian crisis.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.026

E.K. TABEYKINA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History and Pedagogy, Kazan State Energy University, Kazan, Russia

L.M. KHUTOROVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History and Pedagogy, Kazan State Energy University, Kazan, Russia

LOBBYING OF US RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATIONS

The article talks about the fact that issues related to lobbying are relevant in the scientific literature. The origins of this concept have not been precisely established. For example, the opinion is voiced that the name comes from the reception room of the English Parliament, the “lobby”, where people gathered who were waiting to be received to introduce a new bill or amend existing legal acts. Other sources trace the origin of this term to a statement by the 18th US President W. Grant, who by it meant petitioners gathering in the hotel lobby. In its modern meaning, this term began to be used in the United States at the beginning of the 19th century. According to most researchers, lobbying is the practice of putting pressure on government officials by a group of people or an individual using means that do not violate existing laws. The goal of lobbying is to achieve the adoption of a particular law or decision.

Key words: lobbying, parliament, church, religion, human rights activist, state, practice, law.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.027

G.A. AKOPYAN Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

MODERN US DOCTRINE IN THE FIGHT AGAINST INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS

The US doctrine in the fight against terrorism is one of the main components of the country's security policy. It is based on the principles of preventive action, coordination with international partners and the use of a variety of tools to prevent and suppress acts of terrorism.

At the center of the doctrine is the principle of constant monitoring and analysis of threats, which allows the government to take measures to prevent terrorist attacks before they occur. This includes collecting information by various specialized services, conducting operational activities, and forecasting possible scenarios.

The doctrine also implies cooperation with other countries, governments and international organizations in the fight against terrorism. Joint operations and information sharing help identify and neutralize terrorist threats in their early stages.

Despite the multilateral scope of the state’s activities to eliminate the terrorist threat in the world, there are serious problems that can affect the vector of anti-terrorism activities.

In general, American doctrine in the fight against terrorism is a comprehensive and flexible strategy based on threat control, cooperation with other countries and preventive measures. It contributes to ensuring national security and maintaining peace and stability in the world community.

Key words: doctrine, approaches, anti-terrorism activities, USA, problems, national security strategies, development prospects.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.028

WANG FEIXIANG Ph.D. of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

CURRENT PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA AND CHINA

The article discusses issues related to current problems and prospects for the development of Russia and China. The purpose of the study is to study current problems and prospects for the development of Russia and China, to identify the main features and traits. Basic research methods: method of analysis, comparison, logical reasoning and many others. The author of the article emphasizes the importance of developing partnerships between Russia and China in the long term. The process of interaction between Russia and China in various fields and areas of activity has been studied: politics, science, culture, trade, etc. The impact of digitalization on the commodity structure of China's exports is considered. The dynamics of oil exports from Russia to China are analyzed. The increase in demand for gas and oil from 2015 to 2040 was studied. According to different forecast options. The author of the article notes that there are great development prospects for partner countries in various fields and areas of activity. To successfully implement the set goals and objectives, it is necessary to develop a long-term development strategy, determine approaches and mechanisms for influencing economic, political and other processes, identify possible problems and risks, and also evaluate the effectiveness of the result obtained.

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to study current problems and prospects for the development of Russia and China, to identify the main features and traits.

Methods: Basic research methods: method of analysis, comparison, logical reasoning and many others.

Results: Current problems and prospects for the development of Russia and China were studied. The main features and traits are revealed.

Conclusions: In the modern development of Russian-Chinese cooperation, there is a variety of areas of interaction, including powerful exchanges at the highest level, economic and humanitarian integration. There are also many problems that require immediate attention and solutions. The success of achieving the set goals and objectives will depend on management policies, the level of development of international cooperation, as well as internal and external environmental factors.

Key words: current problems, development prospects, Russia, China, cooperation, trade, export.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.029

M.S. VLASOV Postgraduate student of the Department of Public Policy and history of state and law of the Law Institute Russian Friendship University peoples named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

FEATURES OF THE INFORMATION CONFRONTATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE USA IN THE HYBRID WAR

At the beginning of the work, the author analyzes the history of the emergence of hybrid wars, but the main focus is on the information component of a hybrid war, which contains propaganda, counter-propaganda, the creation of disinformation, fake news and the use of rumors to manipulate public opinion and undermine trust within enemy societies.

The article examines the specific strategies and tactics of information warfare used by Russia and the United States, such as cyber attacks, psychological operations and strategic communication, and the author points out the differences in the information strategies of the two countries due to their historical, cultural and political characteristics. It analyzes successful and unsuccessful examples of information campaigns in hybrid conflicts, such as the annexation of Crimea, the conflict in eastern Ukraine and the fight against terrorism, and then highlights the consequences of information operations for international relations, in particular, increasing international isolation and the imposition of sanctions. At the conclusion of the work, the author writes about economic codependence, despite political differences between Russia and the United States.

Key words: hybrid war, information confrontation, Russia, USA, propaganda, cyber attacks, psychological operations, disinformation, strategic communication, international relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.030

TAO ZILONG Postgraduate Student, Department of Political Science, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, China

KAZAKHSTAN'S FOREIGN POLICY AND SINO-KAZAKH, SINO-RUSSIAN AND SINO-AMERICAN RELATIONS

Introduction: Kazakhstan's foreign policy is undergoing significant changes due to the strengthening of China's role in the region and the world. Kazakhstan, being at the junction of the interests of key players – China, Russia and the United States, seeks to pursue a multi-vector policy, balancing between them. The purpose of this study is to analyze the evolution of Kazakhstan's foreign policy in the context of Sino-Kazakh, Sino-Russian and Sino-American relations.

Materials and methods: Qualitative and quantitative methods of analysis are used in the work. A systematic analysis of documents, agreements and public statements by the leaders of Kazakhstan, China, Russia and the United States for the period from 1991 to 2023 was carried out. Statistical data on trade turnover, investments and joint projects between the countries are collected from official sources and international organizations such as the IMF, the World Bank, the SCO, the EAEU. Comparative analysis has been applied to identify dynamics and trends in relations between countries.

Results: The study showed that Kazakhstan is successfully implementing a multi-vector foreign policy, developing a strategic partnership with China, maintaining close ties with Russia and establishing a constructive dialogue with the United States. The trade turnover between Kazakhstan and China increased from $1.29 billion in 2001 to $25.2 billion in 2022. China has invested over $33 billion in the economy of Kazakhstan, implementing large-scale projects in the energy, transport and manufacturing industries. Kazakhstan supports the "One Belt, One Road" initiative, considering it as an opportunity to modernize infrastructure and strengthen its role as a transit hub. At the same time, Kazakhstan retains membership in the EAEU and the CSTO, considering Russia a key partner in the field of security and economy. Astana is also developing relations with Washington, having signed an expanded trade and investment agreement and an agreement on military cooperation in 2022. The United States views Kazakhstan as an important partner in Central Asia, able to balance the influence of China and Russia in the region.

Key words: Kazakhstan's foreign policy, Sino-Kazakh relations, Sino-Russian relations, Sino-American relations, multi-vector, strategic partnership, investment, trade, infrastructure projects, security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.031

S.S. PISARENKO Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

INDIA'S STRATEGIC BALANCING IN THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION

This article examines the current state of affairs of India in the Indo-Pacific region. Today, India is opening up new prospects for cooperation in the IPR both to ensure economic and military security with its allies in QUAD and ASEAN, and to strengthen its own economy and security. The need to strengthen relations with its allies across the board is driven by China's growing economic and military presence in the region.

The article analyzed official statements by heads of state, representatives of the ministries of foreign affairs, and ministries of defense.

The study revealed that India in the IPR is actively increasing its dialogue opportunities with Southeast Asian countries and highly appreciates the importance of dialogue with ASEAN and its QUAD allies.

As for Southeast Asia, India is interested in cooperation in promoting all kinds of maritime security initiatives, from building ships and conducting exercises to initiatives to preserve marine biodiversity. Indian elites see ASEAN as one of the main allies in the IPR since the Association is the third largest market in the world in which India can sell its goods.

The Indian government is deliberately strengthening relations with Western countries, in particular with the United States, concluding new contracts for the production and supply of stationary and mobile weapons, as well as new military vessels and information exchange facilities, holding meetings of the heads of defense and foreign affairs departments every month. All this suggests that India is trying to increase its economic and military potential, as well as take a good position in the Indo-Pacific region.

Key words: Indo-Pacific region, Indian foreign policy, US foreign policy, IPR, militarization of IPR.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.032

XU HAO Postgraduate, International Relations and Global Studies Moscow State University, China

THE TREND OF GLOBALIZATION: THE RISE OF NATIONALISM AND THE COLLAPSE OF TRANSNATIONAL COOPERATION

Over the past decade, nationalist sentiment has been on the rise in many countries around the world. This calls into question the trends towards globalization and deepening international cooperation that had previously been observed. The aim of this study is to analyze the reasons behind the resurgence of nationalism in the context of the unifying effects of globalization.

To achieve this, statistical data from public opinion polls conducted between 2008-2019 in 26 countries was synthesized. The polls were carried out by renowned agencies such as the Pew Research Center and Eurobarometer, with an overall sample of over 500,000 respondents. Additionally, research from the World Bank and regional bodies concerning national identity dynamics was analyzed.

The results reveal concerning trends across multiple countries and regions. For instance, the percentage of people considering their national identity as primary has increased substantially over the past decade in European countries like France (43% to 51%), Italy (37% to 47%), and Hungary (52% to 67%). Similar patterns are observed in the United States, with a 10 percentage point rise in Americans identifying primarily with their nationality. Levels of national pride have also reached historic highs of 76-90% in the last ten years in China, Taiwanese and Vietnam.

This strengthens the argument that globalization may inadvertently incite nationalism rather than diminishing it. As such, detailed investigation is imperative to mitigate rising inter-ethnic tensions that threaten international stability. The next sections analyze factors driving this growth and provide evidence-based recommendations to reverse the trends observed.

Key words: globalization, nationalism, national movements, separatism, multinational state, transnational cooperation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.033

K.S. TRUFANOVA Graduate student of the faculty of global studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

STAGES OF ESCALATION OF RUSSIAN-AMERICAN RELATIONS UNDER THE ADMINISTRATION OF J. BIDEN

This scholarly article examines the stages of escalation in Russian-American relations under the Biden administration, analyzing the historical context of bilateral ties, key points of conflict and events, and proposing conflict resolution paths and prospects for further development of relations between the countries in the context of global and regional challenges.

Key words: Russian-American relations, Biden administration, escalation stages, historical context, conflict points, de-escalation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.034

D.V. LOGVINOV Postgraduate student of the Department of History of Social and Political Studies, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

IDEAS OF L. MECHELIN ON RUSSIA-FINLAND RELATIONS

In the nineteenth century the social and political discourse of the Russian Empire centered around the status of the Grand Duchy of Finland. One of the key figures in this polemic was Leopold Mechelin, who defended Finland's right to independence on the basis of legislative acts and historical facts in his own interpretation. Taking into account the role of Mechelin in the struggle for the Independence of Finland, it seems important to analyze his views on the nature of relations between Finland and Russia and their possible future. Because of this it possible to present the socio-political situation of the epoch and the development of the «Finnish question» more fully. This goal is achieved in this article with the methods of historical-bibliographical and political-textual analysis. As a result of the research it was shown that Mechelin perceived the relations between Finland and Russia as relations of two equal subjects within the essentially federal entity – the Russian Power (Derzhava). According to this conception, Russia and Finland should not interfere in each other's internal affairs, developing independently in accordance with their national features but preserving mutual interests. In the international arena, they should act as a single legal entity, ruled by the Russian emperor, pursuing the goals of achieving the security of the lands entrusted to him.

Key words: Leo Mechelin, independence, Russification of Finland, federal relations, Finnish question.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.035

LING MENGYUAN Ph.D. Candidate, Department of International Relations Beijing Foreign Studies University (BFSU), Beijing, China

SOUTH CAUCASUS RESEARCH: MOTIVATION, CHARACTERISTICS AND DEVELOPMENT IN ASPECT RUSSIAN LITERATURE

The Caucasus is a region whose research has been ongoing for many decades, attracting the attention of both scientists and many writers. In addition, it is a border zone that unites and separates Europe and Asia, which makes it a kind of arena for political clashes. The article provides an overview of research in the Tsarist, Soviet and post-Soviet periods, and also provides a distinction between the toponyms South Caucasus and Transcaucasia. The main discoveries in various periods in the field of history, economics, geography, ethnography, and archeology are outlined. The South Caucasus is examined from a literary perspective and examples are given. For specialists in history, ethnography, as well as university students.

Key words: South Caucasus, Transcaucasia, research, literature, history, politics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.036

LU PO LIN Graduate student of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

CURRENT STATUS AND POLICY ORIENTATION OF ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION AND REFUGEE ISSUES IN THE EU

In late 2010, Tunisia and many other countries in the Middle East were involved in a series of social unrest known in the West as the Arab Spring (1). Since then, the influx of refugees from the Middle East, North Africa and Asia into Europe has become a complex issue for the EU and its member states.

In recent years, the Covid-19 pandemic, the Russian-Ukrainian conflict and the energy crisis have complicated the EU economy. Faced with downward pressure on the domestic economy and problems such as high inflation and unemployment, EU member states may be unable to provide the financial support needed to resettle illegal immigrants and refugees.

To this end, the EU and its Member States have carried out numerous consultations and taken various measures, but the problem of illegal immigration and refugees remains difficult to fully address. More recently, a new round of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in the Gaza Strip has spread to Europe, causing an influx of new refugees from the Middle East to Europe. The problems of illegal immigration and refugees have risen to a whole new level. This article will examine the growing problems of illegal immigration and refugees through policy changes in EU member states and official data published by the UN.

Key words: EU, immigration policy, problem of illegal immigration, refugees, borders.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.037

LIAN WEIYI Graduate student of the Higher School of Cultural Affairs policy and management in humanitarian sphere (faculty) of Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

CHINESE-RUSSIAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION IN THE FIELD OF EDUCATION AND YOUTH DEVELOPMENT

Sino-Russian relations are at an all-time high and have been officially established as a “comprehensive strategic partnership for a new era,” which means that China and Russia will cooperate and develop more in the future. Youth is an important component of the development of our time and the country’s hope for the future. Thus, youth development in the two countries is also an important part of the content of Sino-Russian cooperation. Currently, the two countries have launched a number of projects and cooperation opportunities to collaborate on youth education and future development. In particular, "Briefing on Studying in China" provides a convenient and effective service platform for Russian youth to study in China, and also creates a bridge for friendly relations between foreign students from the two countries. From 2024 to 2025, it will be the year of culture between China and Russia. Exchanges between the two countries in the field of cultural industries will be closer. Therefore, the future trend will be a challenge for the development of the youth of the two countries, even if it is an opportunity.

Key words: Chinese-Russian relations, youth, studying abroad, educational cooperation.

REVIEWS AND SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.108.3.038

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, editor-in-chief of the publishing house "Science Today", Moscow, Russia

ON THE QUESTION OF DIGITALIZATION AND SOME MODERN TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND EDUCATION

The article makes an attempt to analyze current trends in the development of science and education in Russia based on a review of current scientific publications of recent years in peer-reviewed scientific journals. The problems of digitalization of Russian science and education are studied separately. Based on the scientific publications of scientists, a conclusion is drawn about the inconsistency of some strategic plans for the transformation of Russian education based on the European model and without taking into account domestic tradition.

Key words: science, education, development trends, digitalization, European model, Russian tradition, review of publications.

Scientific Journal “Issues of National and Federative Relations”. Volume 14. Issue 1 (106), 2024

CONTENTS

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

  • Golovina A.I. The Genocide of the Jewish Population in the Occupied Territory of the Pskov Region in 1941-1944
  • Grishin A.V. Libraries of the Penza Region During the Perestroika Period
  • Kornev D.V. Industry of Chuvashia in the Context of Socio-Economic Upheaval of the 1990s
  • Krysin D.A. Historiography of L.P.’S Activities Kurakova
  • Malish M.A. Historical Aspects of the Formation of Russian Statehood
  • Agarev A.F., Merkulov A.V. Introduction of a State of Siege in Ryazan During the Great Patriotic War
  • Mirzabekov M.Ya. Problems of Women's Equality in the Works of Ahmedkhan Abu-Bakar in the 1960s.
  • Ryabkova O.V. Implementation of State Social Assistance to Military Servicemen and their Families in the Yamal-Nenets National District in 1941-1946
  • Sidnenko T.I., Sitnikov S.P. Activity of the USSR MIC in Forming a System for the Development and Implementation of Rocket Artillery for the USSR Navy in the 30-40 Years

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

  • Lebedev I.Yu. Property Problem in the History of Ancient Philosophy (Part I)
  • Kerimov O.Yu. The Place of the Theory of "Multiple Modernity" in the Socio-Cultural Discourse on Modernization

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

  • Polunov A.Yu., Budanov M.A. State National Policy and Regional Authorities: Problems of Unification
  • Kirsanova E.G., Gorbunov N.S., Danilova E.A., Saushkina M.S. Utilization of Artificial Intelligence in Social and Political Process: on the Topic of Trends and Issues
  • Bikeikin M.E. On the Question of Contradiction of Scientific Currents on the Nature of Ethnicity (Primordialism and Constructivism) in the Russian Ethnologies: 1990-2023
  • Prisekin A.A. Special Economic Zones as an Actual Mechanism for Solving Modern Problems of Innovative Development: the Experience of the Russian Federation
  • Asatryan B.A. The Russian Model of Political Governance: Current Public Values and an Axiological Turn in the Management Strategy of the Modern Russian Government
  • Dmitriev N.Yu. Problems of Civil Society Development in Modern Russia During the Period of Liberal Transit
  • Nguyen Thi Anh. Factors Obstacle to the Effectiveness of Ethnic Equality Policies in Vietnam
  • Rakityanskiy N.M., Tsaritsyna P.M. The Political Elites of France in the Context of Mental Research (Part 2)
  • Mukhametzyanova-Duggal R.M., Yashin D.Yu. New Religious Movements in Bashkortostan: Genesis, Demographic Characteristics and Organizational Features

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

  • Kovrigin D.E. The Application of Field Theory to Analyze the Interaction of Government and Business in the Russian Segment of Cyberspace
  • Magadiev M.F. Priority Directions for the Development of Public Administration in the Field of Ensuring Technological Sovereignty Russian Federation

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

  • Amiantov A.A., Rabadanov I.R. Military-Political Cooperation Between the States of the Caspian Region and the Protection of Russia's National Interests
  • Magadiev M.F. Russian-Iranian Relations in Conditions of International Turbulence: Status and Current Development Trends
  • Vakhitov R.R. Sensitivity and Vulnerability of Countries in Cyberspace as a Factor of Relationships
  • Drogovoz A.I. "Soft Power" as a Foreign Policy Tool the Republic of Turkey in Central Asia
  • Karachev V.V. The Main Directions of Ensuring Environmental Safety During the Crisis of International Relations
  • Muravyeva A.E. Egypt in the Context of the Palestinian-Israeli Conflict
  • Xonrada G.J., Boceria S.A. Challenges Resulting from Policy Gaps in SCO-ASEAN Regional Security Cooperation: a Qualitative Analysis (2001-2021)
  • Zhao Na. Comparative Analysis of the Soft Power Strategies and Methods of the United States and Russia in the Global Arena
  • Zheng Nan. U.S. Policy in Central Asia Since the End of the Cold War

REVIEWS AND SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS

  • Medvedev N.P. Vector of Modern Historical Publications: on the Question of their Relevance

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.001

A.I. GOLOVINA Graduate student, Department of History, Institute of Humanities, Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia

THE GENOCIDE OF THE JEWISH POPULATION IN THE OCCUPIED TERRITORY OF THE PSKOV REGION IN 1941-1944

One of the first regions of Russia which experienced all the hardships of the The Great Patriotic War was the Pskov region. The city was considered as "the key to the front doors to Leningrad", in connection with which the administrative, economic and military associations of Army Group North, as well as the headquarters of the Einsatzgruppen A, were located in Pskov and nearby areas. Thus, Pskov region became not only the first region of the RSFSR forced to exist under the yoke of German occupation, but also the territory where the "Final Solution to the Jewish question" began to be embodied - the program of genocide of the Jewish population of Europe, otherwise – the Holocaust.

The authors of this article, using problem-chronological and comparative historical research methods, tried to restore the chronology of the extermination of the Jewish population of the Pskov region.

Key words: the Holocaust, the Great Patriotic War, RSFSR, genocide, fascism, Pskov region, getto.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.002

A.V. GRISHIN Graduate student in the Department of History and Philosophy of Penza State University of Architecture and Construction, Penza, Russia

LIBRARIES OF THE PENZA REGION DURING THE PERESTROIKA PERIOD

During the perestroika period, all spheres of the country's socio-economic life, including cultural, are transformed. The library industry is facing new realities and trying to adapt to them. The study of the activities of the network of libraries at the regional level allows you to recreate an objective picture of the daily life of the population; supplement historical knowledge of the essence of state policy in the field of culture, including librarianship, in the indicated chronological framework.

The article sets a goal to study the content and forms of work of libraries of the Penza region in the period 1985-1991. The tasks of the study were implemented on the basis of analysis and generalization of materials from the Foundation of the Department of Culture of the Penza Oblast Executive Committee of the State Archive of the Penza Region. The work uses methods: historical-genetic, historical-comparative.

Initially, libraries continued to operate in the former ideological and organizational framework. Gradually, with the deepening of the processes of democratization and publicity, new approaches and models of the functioning of libraries are being formed. To optimally implement the cultural policy in the region, to increase the efficiency of the work of local libraries and their social status, the «Target Program for the Development of Librarianship in the Penza Region until 2005», «Concept for the Development of Librarianship in the Penza Region», and the «Accessibility» Program «Developed»; a regional council for culture and art was created.

In the context of a decrease in funding and a deterioration in the financial situation of library workers, cultural institutions are expanding the range of paid services.

The study of library practice in the second half of the 1980s in the Penza region made it possible to identify the main trends and difficulties in the development of cultural institutions, to determine the direction of the subsequent study of the scientific problem.

Key words: USSR, perestroika, culture, library, Penza region, «Concept of development of librarianship in Penza region».

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.003

D.V. KORNEV Associate Professor of the Department of Radar and Automatic Control Systems of the Military Training Center at the National Research University "Moscow Institute of Electronic Technology", Zelenograd, Russia

INDUSTRY OF CHUVASHIA IN THE CONTEXT OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC UPHEAVAL OF THE 1990S

“Perestroika” period 1985-1991 is a turning point in the history of Russia. This is a time of radical reforms that covered the economic and political spheres of social life in all regions of the country. Development of industry in post-Soviet Chuvashia in the 1990s. occurred in several stages: the beginning – mid-1990s, when radical economic reforms took place, which led to a significant decline in industry and unemployment; second half of the 1990s – gradual stabilization in the industry, as a result of which a rise in production begins in a number of industries. The main industries of Chuvashia in these years were mechanical engineering and metalworking, electric power, chemical, light and food. Price liberalization announced in 1992 entailed serious financial difficulties for the industry. Since 1994, the Government of the Chuvash Republic has provided active financial support to large industrial organizations of the republic. The measures taken did not make it possible to close large factories in the republic. A significant measure to support industry by the leadership of Chuvashia was transformations in the structures and management processes of organizations. The consistent implementation of the decisions of the Government of the Republic to create the necessary economic and organizational conditions for the normalization of the activities of industrial enterprises made it possible in 1997 to overcome the decline in industrial production. Despite the acute crisis in the socio-economic life of the country's population, the industry of the Chuvash Republic in the late 1990s – early 2000s. managed to overcome the peak of decline and continue its development.

Key words: industry, 1990s, socio-economic reforms, Chuvash Republic.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.004

D.A. KRYSIN Postgraduate student of the Department of Russian History them. A.V. Arsentieva Chuvash State University named after I.N. Ulyanova, Cheboksary, Russia

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

HISTORIOGRAPHY OF L.P.’S ACTIVITIES KURAKOVA

The article is devoted to the research of the historiography of the activities of Professor L.P. Kurakova. The works of regional authors are analyzed.

Key words: L.P. Kurakov, scientist, Chuvashia, biography.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.005

M.A. MALISH Ph.D., Associate Professor, Department of History and Political Science, Kuban State Agrarian University named after I.T. Trubilin, Krasnodar, Russia

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE FORMATION OF RUSSIAN STATEHOOD

This scientific article examines the historical aspects of the formation of Russian statehood. A detailed analysis of the key stages, processes and factors that contributed to the formation and development of the state system on the territory of modern Russia is carried out. Special attention is paid to external factors that have influenced the process of statehood formation. Next, the period of consolidation of Russian statehood in the era of the tsardom is considered. The example of modernization and transformation in the 19th and 20th centuries demonstrates what changes have occurred in the Russian state system. Then, the period of Soviet Russia and its influence on the development of Russian statehood in the context of the formation of the USSR and subsequent changes are considered. The end point of the study is the development of Russian statehood in a modern context. Through an in-depth analysis of historical events and processes, the key features and importance of Russian statehood for modern society are revealed.

Key words: Russian statehood, state, formation, factors, strengthening.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.006

A.F. AGAREV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Ryazan State University named after S.A. Yesenin, Ryazan, Russia

A.V. MERKULOV Postgraduate student (Historical Science and Archeology, National History) of Ryazan State University named for S. Yesenin, Ryazan, Russia

INTRODUCTION OF A STATE OF SIEGE IN RYAZAN DURING THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR

The article contains the results of the events taking place in the Ryazan region at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, about what the situation was at the front and what led to the introduction of a state of siege in the city of Ryazan. This paper describes in detail the list of measures aimed at preparing for the possible defense of the city. Using the example of the Skopinsky district of the Ryazan region, the author showed in detail the results of the Fascist occupation, and also described the events that took place after the liberation of the Skopinsky district from the Fascist invaders, the counteroffensive of the 10th army and, as a consequence, the lifting of the state of siege from the city of Ryazan.

Key words: Ryazan, the Great Patriotic War, the state of siege, Skopin, the line of defense, the Headquarters of the Supreme High Command, Ryazan City Defense Committee.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.007

M.YA. MIRZABEKOV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher of the Institute of History, Archeology and Ethnography, Dagestan Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Makhachkala, Russia

PROBLEMS OF WOMEN'S EQUALITY IN THE WORKS OF AHMEDKHAN ABU-BAKAR IN THE 1960S.

In the modern Russian state, the problem of ensuring gender equality, especially in its Muslim regions, is of undoubted scientific interest and is of great practical importance. In this context, social scientists are faced with the task of exceptional social significance to generalize the experience of socio-cultural development of the population in previous decades, including artistic creativity in such a specific region of the country as Dagestan, which will ensure equal rights for Dagestani women in addressing economic, socio-political, socio- cultural and other problems of the region. In the article, based on the principles of scientific objectivity and historicism, using descriptive and systematic research methods, for the first time in regional historiography, an attempt was made to analyze the problems of gender equality in the works of the people's writer of Dagestan Akhmedkhan Abu-Bakar “Dargin Girls” and “Chegeri”.

Analysis of the texts of the stories allows us to come to a reasonable conclusion that despite objective difficulties and unresolved problems, due to great changes in economic and socio-cultural development in multinational Dagestan in the 1960s, significant positive changes took place in ensuring women's equality in the multinational region countries. However, as the author shows, significant difficulties and unresolved issues remained in the republic in ensuring access for mountain women to education, participation in public life, equality in family life and other spheres of life.

Key words: Dagestan, story, girlfriends, parents, life partner, education, specialty, love, happiness.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.008

O.V. RYABKOVA Junior Researcher, History Sector and archeology of the research department of the State Autonomous Institution of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug “Scientific Center for Arctic Studies”, Salekhard, Russia

IMPLEMENTATION OF STATE SOCIAL ASSISTANCE TO MILITARY SERVICEMEN AND THEIR FAMILIES IN THE YAMAL-NENETS NATIONAL DISTRICT IN 1941-1946.

The purpose of the article is to study the features of the implementation of state social assistance to military personnel and their families in the Yamalo-Nenets National District in 1941-1946. The methodological basis of the work was the mobilization model of the development of Russian society. The study used general scientific methods – analysis and synthesis, deduction and induction. The novelty of the study lies in the introduction into scientific circulation of previously unpublished information in the scientific literature on the issues of social security for military personnel and their families in the Yamalo-Nenets National District during and after the end of the Great Patriotic War. Providing assistance to the families of military personnel and those returning from the front was of great political importance, as it demonstrated the state's concern for its citizens during the war. Also, support measures helped strengthen the moral and psychological climate among the population, overcome the hardships of wartime in the rear, and contributed to the citizens’ focus on victory and loyalty to the Soviet government.

Key words: Yamalo-Nenets District, social assistance, assistance to military personnel, assistance to those in need, state assistance, compensation, Great Patriotic War.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.009

T.I. SIDNENKO Associate Professor, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor of the Department of History of Russia since ancient times times before the beginning of the 19th century, Russian State Pedagogical University named after. A.I. Herzen, Moscow, Russia

S.P. SITNIKOV Lecturer at the Department of Tactics (and Combat Work of MFA) Mikhailovsky Military Artillery Academy, Moscow, Russia

ACTIVITY OF THE USSR MIC IN FORMING A SYSTEM FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ROCKET ARTILLERY FOR THE USSR NAVY IN THE 30-40 YEARS

The work of management bodies, industry on the development of rocket artillery installations, ammunition for Navy vessels in 30-40 years. Abstract The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the development of rocket launchers, combat and special-purpose rocket ammunition for the Navy in the 30-40 years. Development of new principles of their application on ships of various types. Applications in the interests of coastal artillery. The decisive contribution of the designers of jet weapons is shown. The main stages of the test are reflected. The work of industry in the pre-war years, which played a crucial role in the defeat of the enemy in the Great Patriotic War.

Key words: rocket launchers, rocket projectiles (RS), People's Commissariat of Mortar Armament of the USSR, Artillery Directorate of the Navy.

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.010

I.YU. LEBEDEV Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State Regulation of Economics, Faculty of MIGSU RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

PROPERTY PROBLEM IN THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY (PART I)

Primary systematic analysis of the problems of property and social philosophy in the works of Plato and Aristotle. Private and public property, their interdependence and differences. Types of government. Laws and their role in society. Hedonic and rationalistic principle. Aristotle on human nature and property. The concept of natural inequality, production and consumption. The role of property as a cause of war.

Key words: property, ancient philosophy, social philosophy, Plato, Aristotle, anthropic principle, the desiring and rational principle of the human soul, oligarchy, chrematistics, state, laws, incentive for private property, justice, timocracy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.011

O.YU. KERIMOV South-Russia Institute of Management – Branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

THE PLACE OF THE THEORY OF "MULTIPLE MODERNITY" IN THE SOCIO-CULTURAL DISCOURSE ON MODERNIZATION

The article is devoted to the analysis of the basic provisions of the theory of "multiple modernity" proposed by Sh. Eisenstadt and his followers, in the context of socio-cultural discourse on modernization. The author identifies and shows the main differences between the theory of multiple modernity and the concept of socio-cultural modernization developed by Russian researchers. The article emphasizes the importance of symbolic structuralism as a methodological basis for the theory of multiple modernity, it is noted that differences in civilizational and cultural symbolism determine the multivariance of modern forms corresponding to different civilizations. In contrast to the concept of socio-cultural modernization, which limits the importance of socio-cultural factors by influencing the course of modernization of the value-normative complex, the theory of multiple moderns proceeds from the idea of the determining role of cultural and civilizational symbolism in the formation and transformation of the institutional structure of societies.

Key words: sociocultural discourse, modernization, theory of "multiple modernity", universalism, civilization, archetypal symbolism, endogenous modernity.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.012

A.YU. POLUNOV PhD in History, Professor, Head of the Department of Interethnic and Interdenominational Relations Management, Faculty of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

M.A. BUDANOV PhD in History, Associate Professor, Department of Interethnic and Interdenominational Relations Management, Faculty of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

STATE NATIONAL POLICY AND REGIONAL AUTHORITIES: PROBLEMS OF UNIFICATION

Regulation of interethnic relations constitutes one of the most important directions of the state policy of the Russian Federation, due to the multi-ethnic nature of our country and the high level of national self-awareness of the peoples inhabiting it. The article analyzes the main directions of government activity in this area and the problems that exist here. A significant part of these problems is associated with insufficient coordination of the work of various institutions responsible for the implementation of state national policy, and the need to make this work more systematic and targeted. This problem, in turn, is largely caused by the diversity of bodies involved in regulating interethnic relations at the level of federal subjects. Based on the study of regulatory legal acts and other official sources, as well as Internet resources, the authors analyze the current situation in this area. The analysis carried out allows us to conclude that the current state of affairs hinders the effective implementation of the state national policy, especially in the context of the increasing complexity of the tasks facing it. The situation could be ameliorated by introducing of a certain unification into the system of bodies responsible for regulating interethnic relations, as well as the establishment in key regions of the country of territorial departments of the Federal Agency for Nationalities Affairs. The movement in this direction began with the creation in 2023 of the Southwestern Directorate of the Federal Agency with centers in Rostov-on-Don and the Interregional Directorate for the North Caucasus Federal District, the Republic of Crimea and Sevastopol with centers in Kislovodsk and the city of Sevastopol.

Key words: state national policy, interethnic relations, public administration, Federal Agency for Nationalities Affairs, authorities of the constituent entities of the federation, territorial administrations, unification of governing bodies.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.013

E.G. KIRSANOVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor Department of Comparative Political Science, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

N.S. GORBUNOV Postgraduate student at the Faculty of Political Science Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov; master's degree in "International Relations", master's program "International Strategic Communications" of the Faculty of World Politics, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

E.A. DANILOVA State Civil Service Advisor, Russian Federation 2nd class; third-year postgraduate student at the Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, Master of Management, Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov with a specialization in “Public Administration”; lead advisor, Department for Development of Eurasian Integration, Ministry of Economic Development of Russia (2018-2020), Moscow, Russia

M.S. SAUSHKINA Postgraduate student of the Department of Comparative Political Science, Faculty of Political Science, Moscow State University. M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

UTILIZATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE IN SOCIAL AND POLITICAL PROCESS: ON THE TOPIC OF TRENDS AND ISSUES

Today the necessity of developing artificial intelligence (AI) in various spheres of society is beyond doubt. Digitalization is penetrating deeper into public administration, political and socio-economic areas. In this regard the issue of the modern digital technologies advantages as well as the new challenges faced by the state and society become relevant. Young political scientists of Moscow State University under the guidance of PhD in Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Comparative Political Science Department discussed current trends and consequences of the artificial intelligence usage in socio-political processes, including opportunities and threats. The purpose of the academic discussion is to outline the capabilities of artificial intelligence, as well as the potential of modern digital technologies. The content of the paper appears to be academically significant and is presented in the form of a research. Thus, the main research method is academic discussion. During preparations for the discussion were also used methods of content analysis and event analysis. In the course of the discussion both Russian and foreign experience of using AI systems in socio-political processes were raised, which showed the complexity of their use in modern times.

Key words: artificial intelligence, digitalization, digital technologies, big data, socio-political processes, sustainable development, national security, large language model (LLM), recognition systems, forecasting, big data analysis, information security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.014

M.E. BIKEIKIN Postgraduate student of the Research Institute of Humanities under the Government of the Republic of Mordovia; Communications Manager of JSC "Kalinov Rodnik", Saransk, Russia

ON THE QUESTION OF CONTRADICTION OF SCIENTIFIC CURRENTS ON THE NATURE OF ETHNICITY (PRIMORDIALISM AND CONSTRUCTIVISM) IN THE RUSSIAN ETHNOLOGIES: 1990-2023

The article analyzes the main aspects of the discussion on the need to rethink the place of the primordialist approach in Russian ethnology and related scientific disciplines, which intensified among Russian ethnologists in the early 2020s and continues to this day. The author seeks to highlight the key points of divergence between primordialismand constructivism, identify the causes of the conflict, and give a forecast of its development in the near future.

Key words: primordialism, constructivism, Russian ethnology, paradigms in Russian ethnology, ethnological methods, ethnogenesis, ethnicity, ethnos, nation, state, politics, ethnopolitical science.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.015

A.A. PRISEKIN Postgraduate student of the Department of Comparative Political Science, Faculty of Political Science, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONES AS AN ACTUAL MECHANISM FOR SOLVING MODERN PROBLEMS OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

Modern global challenges raise the issue of developing mutually beneficial relations between government and business, creating an effective form of their cooperation for the realization of national interests. Currently, scientific and technical policy and the innovation environment of the Russian Federation have a wide range of tools and mechanisms for interaction between government authorities and business structures for the study, development, creation, production, dissemination of new technologies and modernization of outdated ones, however, at the same time, innovative development, stimulation of new discoveries and development of innovative infrastructure are key for domestic policy. In this regard, there is a search for an up-to-date and effective mechanism of cooperation. The Special Economic Zone is just one of them. It allows you to combine the funds of both partners not only within one of the production sectors, but also for innovative development. Together, the public and private sectors are forming innovative infrastructure throughout the country, creating a number of complexes for scientific and technological progress. In turn, SEZs are, to a certain extent, a driver for launching many projects and innovations that make it possible to make a breakthrough in many areas. Thanks to this mechanism, it is possible to solve a number of socio-economic problems facing the Russian Federation.

Key words: special economic zones, interaction between the public and private sectors, scientific and technical policy, innovation, innovation policy, innovative development.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.016

B.A. ASATRYAN Assistant to the Deputy of the Legislative Assembly of the Rostov region, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

THE RUSSIAN MODEL OF POLITICAL GOVERNANCE: CURRENT PUBLIC VALUES AND AN AXIOLOGICAL TURN IN THE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY OF THE MODERN RUSSIAN GOVERNMENT

In the article, based on the results of political and legal documents, hermeneutic and content analysis of the Messages of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly, the results of public opinion monitoring on strategic planning and implementation of social policy ("National Goals – 2023", "National Projects – 2023", "Social Justice", "Special Operation", etc.) were the current public values, the dynamics of the Russians' assessment of the effectiveness of the activities of the political authorities and the supreme national leader are revealed.

Current opinion polls confirm that the public values of modern Russia are connected, first of all, with the demand of the population for social justice, order, the rule of law, and material well-being. The modern Russian government at the legislative level recognizes and fixes traditional values as universal guidelines of state and public policy, designating them as necessary conditions for ensuring national security, sovereignty, goals of innovative development, and the well-being of citizens, which can be interpreted as an axiological turn in the concept of political governance in Russia. At the same time, the paradoxical nature of the Russian management model, with the dominance of two completely different states of the socio-political system, the anti-crisis management model, which practically excludes risk management and prevents disasters at the cost of large losses, based on two completely different types of subjects of socio-political and economic development (administrators of cells within the base clusters at the bottom of the power vertical and bureaucrats-officials at the top of the pyramid of power), leadership type, etc. significantly hinders the innovative development of Russia. This requires further adjustment of the political management of external and internal polysubject environments based on the model management by values.

Key words: post-non-classical paradigm of political management, Russian management model, monitoring of public opinion, public values, management by values.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.017

N.YU. DMITRIEV Postgraduate student, South-Russia Institute of Management – Branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

PROBLEMS OF CIVIL SOCIETY DEVELOPMENT IN MODERN RUSSIA DURING THE PERIOD OF LIBERAL TRANSIT

The article emphasizes the relevance of the study of the problems of civil society development in modern Russia during the period of liberal transit, which was due to the general incompleteness of the processes of formation of Russian political power in the post-Soviet period and the instability of the positioning of its main constituents, including political elites, as well as political and civil society. The main results of the presented research include the provisions according to which the process of formation of civil society in our country cannot be considered exclusively in the image and likeness with similar processes taking place in Western European countries: there are significant differences both in type and in the sources of formation of civil structures. According to the conclusion of the author of the study, the main obstacles to the effective development of civil society in our country include the lack of development of the so-called horizontal communication: the population as a whole is characterized by value fragmentation and unwillingness to engage in dialogue in the absence of developed and stable direct and feedback links between society and government, which is accompanied by the dominance of paternalistic orientations in a significant parts of the population.

Key words: bureaucracy, state power, civil initiative, civil structure, civil control, civil society, non-profit organization, public organization, political elite, statistic.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.018

NGUYEN THI ANH Postgraduate student of the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN), Moscow, Russia

FACTORS OBSTACLE TO THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ETHNIC EQUALITY POLICIES IN VIETNAM

Being a multi-ethnic country and developing in line with international integration, Vietnam pays special attention to pursuing a policy of ethnic equality. However, in addition to the achievements, these policies still have certain disadvantages, which make life more difficult for ethnic minorities. They still face difficult living conditions, low wages, limited access to services and high levels of poverty. The purpose of this article is to identify factors that reduce the effectiveness of the ethnic equality policy in Vietnam, which will further help improve this policy.

Key words: Vietnam, political system, policy of ethnic equality, ethnic policy, international integration, officials, science and technology, sabotage, corruption, stagnation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.019

N.M. RAKITYANSKIY Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Political Sociology and Psychology Program, Political Science Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

P.M. TSARITSYNA Graduate student, Political Sociology and Psychology Program, Political Science Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE POLITICAL ELITES OF FRANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF MENTAL RESEARCH

(Part 2)

The second part of the article examines the influence of the French Renaissance on the ruling elites, who, having assimilated the mental models of the Italian Renaissance, began to build their national identity on their basis. The centuries-old theological and political nature of French political power in the Renaissance era transformed into a substantive and pragmatic one. For the first time in the political history of Europe, politics was separated from religion. Christian dogmas as the basic mental attitudes of the elites have given way to the meaning-generating primacy of secular principles of existence. During the period of absolutism, anti-absolutist and anticlerical mental and political attitudes were formed in the elite environment on the soil cultivated by the Renaissance, which determined the nature of the revolutionary events of the XVIII-XIX centuries. During the period of the Consulate and the First Empire, Napoleon I, seeking to ensure the economic dominance of the Empire and its military superiority over the countries of the continent, pursued a policy of mental reconstruction of the elite. In the course of the analysis, the authors reveal the dialectical nature of the mental dynamics of the French elites.

Key words: ruling elites, mentalization, Renaissance, absolutism, Enlightenment, revolution, Consulate, First Empire, mental dynamics, reflection, subjectivity, patriotism, passionarity, transpersonal will, nonconformism, positivism, anticlericalism, Louis XI, Francis I, Henry IV, Louis XIII, Richelieu, Louis XIV, Mazarin, Napoleon I, Napoleon III, G. Clemenceau, Ch. de Gaulle.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.020

R.M. MUKHAMETZYANOVA-DUGGAL Doctor of Political Science, Professor R.G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

D.YU. YASHIN Postgraduate student, R.G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research, Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

NEW RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS IN BASHKORTOSTAN: GENESIS, DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS AND ORGANIZATIONAL FEATURES

The article examines the new religious movements, identifies the main types of non-traditional beliefs that have spread in Bashkortostan. The author examines their development from the beginning to the present, gives the main demographic characteristics and analyzes the organizational features.

Key words: religion, new religious movements, society of Krishna consciousness, Scientology, syncretism.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.022

D.E. KOVRIGIN Postgraduate student of the Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THE APPLICATION OF FIELD THEORY TO ANALYZE THE INTERACTION OF GOVERNMENT AND BUSINESS IN THE RUSSIAN SEGMENT OF CYBERSPACE

The purpose of this article is to study the cyberspace of the Russian Federation within the framework of field theory. The field of Russian IT companies is determined by the territorial affiliation and state regulatory systems of the Russian Federation. At the present stage, this field is in a destabilized state due to the sanctions pressure of foreign states, in particular, due to the suspension of the activities of foreign companies in Russia.

Key words: field theory, state, economic cluster, sanctions, national segment of cyberspace, information technology, economics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.023

M.F. MAGADIEV Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Strategic Communications and public administration Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Russian Federation, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia

PRIORITY DIRECTIONS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE FIELD OF ENSURING TECHNOLOGICAL SOVEREIGNTY RUSSIAN FEDERATION

In the modern international situation, characterized by the formation of new principles of the world order and transformation of the world economic system, the issue of national security and ensuring socio-economic security based on the imperative of technological sovereignty arises especially acutely. In this article, the author examines the priority areas for the development of public administration in the field of ensuring the technological sovereignty of the Russian Federation, analyzes their current state, noting both positive aspects and problematic aspects. The conclusion summarizes the main conclusions from the research.

Key words: Security, public administration, import substitution, Russia, sanctions, technology, technological sovereignty, electronic government, digitalization of the economy.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.024

A.A. AMIANTOV Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Public and Municipal Administration of the Patrice Lumumba Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, member of the Expert Council of the Federation Council Committee on Defense and Security, Moscow, Russia

I.R. RABADANOV Political scientist, member of the Expert Council of the Federation Council Committee on Defense and Security, specialist in international relations, Moscow, Russia

MILITARY-POLITICAL COOPERATION BETWEEN THE STATES OF THE CASPIAN REGION AND THE PROTECTION OF RUSSIA'S NATIONAL INTERESTS

The article analyzes the normative legal acts regulating relations between the states of the Caspian region, as well as modern military and political processes taking place in the region in modern realities. Possible threats to the national interests of the Russian Federation, the Islamic Republic of Iran and other Caspian littoral states are being investigated. The article predicts the further development of the military-political situation in the region and makes certain recommendations.

Key words: Caspian region, Russia, international cooperation, convention, foreign policy, political process, security.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.025

M.F. MAGADIEV Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Strategic Communications and public administration Diplomatic Academy of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs Russian Federation, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Moscow, Russia

RUSSIAN-IRANIAN RELATIONS IN CONDITIONS OF INTERNATIONAL TURBULENCE: STATUS AND CURRENT DEVELOPMENT TRENDS

The current geopolitical situation contributes to the rapprochement of the Russian Federation with the Islamic Republic. In this article, the author examines the state and current trends in the development of Russian-Iranian relations in conditions of international turbulence. At the same time, special attention is paid to intensifying cooperation between the two countries in the context of a special military operation in Ukraine and building a multipolar world. In conclusion, conclusions reflecting the main results of the study are summarized.

Key words: Military-technical cooperation, Iran, multipolar world, Russia, Russian-Iranian relations, sanctions, Special military operation in Ukraine.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.021

R.R. VAKHITOV Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

SENSITIVITY AND VULNERABILITY OF COUNTRIES IN CYBERSPACE AS A FACTOR OF RELATIONSHIPS

The article is devoted to the actual topic of the development of cyber technologies in the modern world, as well as the impact of cyber operations on relations between states. It is noted that cyber-attacks are becoming a key factor in the threat to relationships on the world stage. The study presents a general definition of cyber technology and attempts to highlight vulnerabilities in cyberspace. The analysis reveals the concept of sensitivity and vulnerability among countries in the field of cybersecurity, and the key role in development is assigned to actively forming coalitions of countries to preserve their sovereignty in the field of cybersecurity. It is revealed that the largest companies are becoming a potential source of both resolution and emergence of global and complex problems – they are entrusted with the functions of integration and ensuring the long-term vector of development of cyber technologies in the world.

Key words: cyber technologies, international relations, cyber security, cyber threats, state infrastructure.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.026

A.I. DROGOVOZ Postgraduate student of the Faculty of Global Processes, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

"SOFT POWER" AS A FOREIGN POLICY TOOL THE REPUBLIC OF TURKEY IN CENTRAL ASIA

The paper examines the features of Turkey's “soft power” policy in Central Asia. The Republic of Turkey views Central Asia as a zone of its national interests and influence, believing that the common ethnic roots of the Turkic peoples, cultural and historical community, geopolitical and economic opportunities provide an opportunity to gain a foothold in the region as one of the most influential actors.

The purpose of the work is to analyze Turkey’s “soft power” policy in Central Asia. Its main objectives are to consider the factors determining Turkey’s “soft power” in the Central Asian region, the formation and evolution of Turkey’s “soft power” policy in the region, the transformation of summits of Turkic-speaking states into the regional Organization of Turkic States, TIKA as a tool of “soft power”, culture and education, as well as cooperation during COVID-19. The relevance of the topic is determined by the growing attention and level of cooperation between Turkey and the countries of Central Asia. Turkey's attention to the region has been permanent, but in recent years there has been a noticeable intensification of it, primarily through “soft power” tools. In this regard, it is of interest to analyze Turkey’s “soft power” policy in Central Asia, its strengths and possible limitations. The methods used include systemic, comparative, historical, and situational analysis.

The article analyzes the key aspects of Turkey’s “soft power” policy in Central Asia, their current state, trends and development prospects.

Key words: Turkey, Central Asia, “soft power”, cooperation, Organization of Turkic States, culture, education.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.027

V.V. KARACHEV Postgraduate student, South-Russia Institute of Management – Branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF ENSURING ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY DURING THE CRISIS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

This article examines the key aspects and strategies of ensuring environmental safety in the context of increasing international tensions and crises. The author analyzes how the conjuncture of international political relations affects environmental policy. Special attention is paid to the relationship between environmental challenges and the geopolitical situation, including issues of climate change, consumption of natural resources and international cooperation in the field of ecology. The article offers a comprehensive approach to the analysis of environmental challenges and threats in the context of global political changes, emphasizing the need to strengthen international cooperation and develop sustainable environmental strategies.

Key words: natural resources, environmental problems, globalization, international relations, environmental security, geopolitics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.028

A.E. MURAVYEVA Graduate student of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

EGYPT IN THE CONTEXT OF THE PALESTINIAN-ISRAELI CONFLICT

This study is devoted to Egypt, analyzing the reasons for the attempt to regain its regional role, despite the high level of poverty in the country. Egypt's previously observed involvement in many international processes, the high level of its diplomacy, large population, and geographical location still allow it today to count on an active role in international issues in the region. It should be noted that Egypt interprets the role of a mediator in the modern Palestinian-Israeli conflict in its own way.

Key words: world politics, regional role, Egypt, transformation of the world order, Egypt Strategy 2030.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.029

G.J. XONRADA PhD student (international relations) Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

S.A. BOCERIA Candidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russia

CHALLENGES RESULTING FROM POLICY GAPS IN SCO-ASEAN REGIONAL SECURITY COOPERATION: A QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS (2001-2021)

Policies are formalized statements of intent given by organizations and institutions. Through the lenses of structural and defensive realism theories, the Shanghai Cooperation Agreement (SCO) aims to present an alternative to Western models of regionalism. In contrast, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), through omni-enmeshment theory, aims to reinforce its centrality in the Asia-Pacific region by establishing partnerships with a diverse set of partners. However, there are significant gaps in the guiding policies enabling SCO and ASEAN regional security cooperation, which limits the potential of this endeavor between the two organizations. A qualitative analysis of the foundational SCO and ASEAN policies from 2001 to 2021 reveals significant policy gaps hindering regional security cooperation growth between the two organizations. While the SCO and ASEAN have shared values that could become a new form of regionalism, this process presents several challenges. These challenges include disjointed bilateral relations between key SCO members China and Russia with ASEAN, different preferred modes of cooperation, superficial existing policies, limited appreciation of ASEAN towards SCO, and divergent views of ASEAN member states towards the SCO.

Key words: ASEAN, SCO, regionalism, omni-enmeshment, defensive realism, policy gap analysis.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.030

ZHAO NA Postgraduate Student, Faculty of Global Studies, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE SOFT POWER STRATEGIES AND METHODS OF THE UNITED STATES AND RUSSIA IN THE GLOBAL ARENA

A comparative analysis of the soft power strategies and methods of the United States and Russia in the global arena is an intriguing and complex study of two influential global actors. Both states actively employ soft power in their strategies to influence global events, but the methods and approaches to its implementation significantly differ. The United States, based on the ideals of democracy and freedom, utilizes a wide range of soft power tools. Cultural diplomacy, humanitarian aid, the dissemination of their values through mass media, and educational programs are all part of the American arsenal of soft power. America aims to create an image of an open society that is attractive to other nations. On the other hand, the Russian approach to soft power often focuses on preserving national identity and maintaining influence in its immediate and distant abroad. Russia actively employs information warfare, control over energy resources, and support for Russian-speaking diasporas in other countries. Comparing these strategies, it can be noted that the United States tends to use soft power to maintain global leadership and spread its values, while Russia, seeking to restore its influence, focuses on protecting national interests. An important aspect of the comparison is also the effectiveness of soft power application in different regions of the world. Where values and methods align with local culture, soft power is usually more successful. In this context, the United States, with more experience in implementing its soft power, can often achieve more noticeable results. However, despite differences in strategies, both states understand the importance of utilizing soft power in the modern world. Its effective application helps to mitigate conflicts, create allies, and influence public opinion. As a result, the analysis of the soft power of the United States and Russia emerges as a key element in understanding their foreign policies and strategies on the global stage.

Key words: soft power, United States, Russia, cultural diplomacy, humanitarian aid, information warfare.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.031

ZHENG NAN PhD in Political Science, Assistant Professor Institute for International and Area Studies, Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

U.S. POLICY IN CENTRAL ASIA SINCE THE END OF THE COLD WAR

The subject of the study is the US policy in Central Asia after the end of the Cold War. The basis of the study is the works of the following authors: E.G. Garbuzarova, N.K. Nurlanova, O.V. Gributskaya, I. Roemer, N. Imamova, B. Abikanova and others. The article analyses the legislative act "United States Strategy for Central Asia"; gives examples of diplomatic interaction between the United States and Central Asian countries; presents the main directions in which the United States and Central Asian countries interact in the economic sphere. As a result, it is concluded that, in addition to security and counter-terrorism, the US in Central Asia had economic interests due to the desire to damage the economies of the Russian Federation and the PRC.

Key words: politics, economy, investment, US, Central Asia, counter-terrorism, bilateral investment treaties.

REVIEWS AND SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.106.1.032

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, editor-in-chief of the publishing house "Science Today", Moscow, Russia

VECTOR OF MODERN HISTORICAL PUBLICATIONS: ON THE QUESTION OF THEIR RELEVANCE

The article provides an analytical review of historical research based on scientific publications of recent years in peer-reviewed journals. The topics of publications are related to the coverage of historical events in the states of the post-Soviet space. Particular attention is paid to the problems of objectivity of scientific publications on Russian history.

Key words: historical publications, domestic history, post-Soviet states, objectivity of scientific research, distortion of history.

Scientific Journal “Issues of National and Federative Relations”. Volume 14. Issue 2 (107), 2024

CONTENTS

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

  • Kurenkova E.A. F.I. Tyutchev's Historiosophic Views of the Crimean War Period: Expectations and Reality
  • Nikolskaya A.V., Belanovskaya I.S. Communication of Authority and Society During the Reign of Alexander I
  • Starodubtsev A.Yu. Agitation and Propaganda During the Civil War in Russia 1917-1922. In Modern Russian Historiography
  • Golovina A.I. The Genocide of the Jewish Population in the Occupied Territory of the Bryansk Region in 1941-1944
  • Gusev P.Yu. Post-War Features Restoration of Industry in the Territory of the Bryansk Region
  • Kargapolov V.P., Klyuchnikova A.N., Prikhodko N.K., Kopytova A.V. Athletes of the Khabarovsk Territory on the Fronts of the Great Patriotic War and the War with Japan
  • Konev V.A. A Discussion in the Journal "Vozhatyi" about the Transformation of the Pioneer Movement in the Second Half of the 1980s.
  • Narcissus M.S. Regulation of Land Conflicts and Strengthening of Social Structure: a Study of Law and Order in Peasant Communities of the Northern Region in the 16th-17th Centuries
  • Oreshin S.A. The Problem of the Political Status of the Chechen Republic in the Russian-Chechen Negotiations of the 1990s.
  • Pogartsev V.V. The Use of Wireless and Wired Radio on the Fronts of the Russian-Japanese War (1904-1905)
  • Pokasov V.F., Anuprienko I.A., Malyavina G.I. Transformation of the Kurds’ Culture and Local Traditions on the Ottoman Empire Territory in the Second Half of the XVII Century
  • Rogachev A.M. The Use of Strikebreakers by Unions of Entrepreneurs as a Means of Countering the Strike Movement in the Russian Empire of the Late XIX – Early XX Centuries
  • Subbotin D.A. Establishment of Healthcare System in Tsarist Russia of Late XVIII – Early XX Centuries. (Using Simbirsk Province as an Example)
  • Khvastov A.N. Formation of a New Political Consciousness in the Course of Cultural and Mass Work with German Prisoners of War in the Period from 1941 to 1953
  • Darenskaia I.V. The "Right to Appeal" as a Form of Control Over the Activities of the State Apparatus in the 1920s-1930s
  • Voitovich A.H. Population and Settlement of the Azerbaijani Diaspora in Tyumen Region in 1989-2020

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

  • Starostin A.M. Modern Political Strategizing in the Context of Cognitive Constructivist Methodology
  • Lebedev I.Yu. Property Problem in the History of Ancient Philosophy (Part II)
  • Starostin A.M., Ponedelkov A.V. Civilizational Format Representations of Modern Russian Elites
  • Furman T.G. Contradictions of Technological Society as a Political and Philosophical Construct of the National Idea of Modern Russia
  • Kerimov O.O. The Role and Place of Military Elites in the "Power Triangle" in the Concept of I.R. Mills and Modernity

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

  • Zhang Yifei. The Influence of National Ideology on the Evolution of China's Political System: from the 1940s to the Present
  • Devterev V.V. The Main Features of the System of Federal Relations
  • Gandaloeva Z.M. Political Limology in the Context of Sub-National Borders

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

  • Balynskaya N.R., Murtazin R.A., Shkurko N.S. Transformation of Youth Policy Russian Federation (Based on the Example of the Work of Profile Forums)
  • Dmitriev N.Yu. The Model of the Nationalization of Civil Society and its Reflection in the Practice of Interaction Between Political Elites and Civil Society Structures in Modern Russia

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

  • Fedorov D.V. National and Cultural Aspects of the Confrontation Between Russia and the West
  • Han Wenxin. How Public Opinion about China Transforms the Diplomatic Strategy Between China and the US: Historical Context and Contemporary Issues
  • Ivanova N.E. Scientific and Educational Cooperation Between Russia and the Dominican Republic on the Example of Peoples' Friendship University of Russia Named after Patrice Lumumba
  • Wang Feixiang. Political Problems of International Relations of Global and Regional Development
  • Karagachev V.V., Uvarova G.G. Evaluation Contours of the State Environmental Policy in the Context of the Crisis of International Relations
  • Leang Taingsoth. Political Features of Relations Between Cambodia and ASEAN Countries in the XXI Century
  • Lidzhieva K.N. The Foreign Policy Priorities of the Republic of Korea Through the Prism of the Presidents' Inaugural Speeches
  • Miloevich L. Theory of Regional Security Complexes on the Example of US Containment of Russia Since 2000 in the Context of European Security
  • Xu Chang, Don Juyuan, Xu Hao. Comprehensively Enhancing Sino-Russia Relations to Help Build a Community with a Shared Future for Mankind
  • Shanchuan Zhizi. Cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan in the Struggle with Poverty: Gender Aspect
  • Mammadova N.Kh. New Elements of the Manifestation of the “Humanitarian Intervention” of the United States at the Beginning of the XXI Century

REVIEWS AND SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS

  • Medvedev N.P. On the Question about Directions of Scientific Research by Regionology

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.001

E.A. KURENKOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of the History of Russia of the State University of Education, Moscow, Russia

F.I. TYUTCHEV'S HISTORIOSOPHIC VIEWS OF THE CRIMEAN WAR PERIOD: EXPECTATIONS AND REALITY

F.I. Tyutchev as a poet belongs not only to the most profound representatives of domestic culture. His historical and philosophical heritage, which reflects his views on the historical process of Russia's development, is of special interest. In this article on the basis of journalistic works and epistolary heritage of F.I. the attitude of the poet and diplomat to the events of the Crimean War is revealed, his ideas affecting the problems of Russia’s foreign policy are analyzed.

The purpose of the article is to reveal the basic, conceptual provisions of historiosophic views of F.I. Tyutchev during the Crimean War, to determine their role in the cognition of the historical process.

The following tasks are set in this study:

– to make a brief excursion into the history of the Crimean War;

– to determine the essence of the concept of "Russophobia" introduced by F.I. Tyutchev, relying on his publicism and letters, where he reveals the causes of this phenomenon;

– to reveal the idea of messianic purpose of Russia, which in Tyutchev in the context of the events of the Crimean War acquires special significance;

– to analyze F.I. Tyutchev’s views concerning mutual relations between Russia and Europe and determine their relevance in modern world politics.

The following methods were used in this study:

– historical-hermeneutic method, through which the main historiosophic provisions set forth in Tyutchev's concept were characterized and their interpretation was given;

– comparativist method, which was used in the process of analyzing Tyutchev’s conception of the opposition "Russia – West".

The results of this study allow not only to reveal deeper the personality of F.I. Tyutchev, who was not only a great poet, but also did a lot for Russia in the diplomatic field, leaving behind works that present a relevant for today's time concept of Russian history at a certain segment of its path.

Key words: F.I. Tyutchev, Crimean War, Russophobia, Russia, the West.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.002

A.V. NIKOLSKAYA Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, Kosygin Russian State University, Moscow, Russia

I.S. BELANOVSKAYA Student of the Philological Faculty of the Psychological Direction of the RUDN University, Moscow, Russia

COMMUNICATION OF AUTHORITY AND SOCIETY DURING THE REIGN OF ALEXANDER I

The article argues that the main driver of Russian development in the era of Alexander I was authotiry, although educated society tried to indicate the desired directions of development. It has been suggested that the conflicting demands of reformers and conservatives forced Alexander to carry out gradual reforms without introducing the general public to his plans. Based on the theory of violation of expectations, it is shown that the result of such activitу was disappointment in the emperor. Communication between government and society is considered within the framework of feedback in the context of the presence/absence of cooperation, mutual understanding and the sense of justice perceived by the people. Satisfaction with relationships with authority is considered in need, emotional and cognitive aspects.

Key words: reforms, modernization, communication between government and society, theory of violation of expectations, cooperation/competition between government and society.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.003

A.YU. STARODUBTSEV Graduate student, Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia

AGITATION AND PROPAGANDA DURING THE CIVIL WAR IN RUSSIA 1917-1922. IN MODERN RUSSIAN HISTORIOGRAPHY

The Russian Civil War became one of the most tragic and significant episodes in the history of our country. The key feature of this conflict was а politico-ideological confrontation of the all sides of the conflict. For the first time, the country was split primarily for ideological reasons, which led to the extreme importance of the classical methods of waging political struggle – agitation and propaganda. They were the key instruments of disseminating certain views and convincing a large number of people of the correctness of a particular political program.

The purpose of this work is to identify the main trends characteristic of the modern stage of study of agitation and propaganda during the Civil War of 1917-1922 in Russia. By the term “trends” we mean the main directions within which modern historians develop their research: the specifics of choosing the subject of research, attention to certain problems, approaches to their disclosure. Chronologically, works from the second half of the 1980s to the present are considered as modern historiography.

The main objectives of the study are: to identify trends characteristic of the current stage of studying agitation and propaganda during the Civil War and to analyze works devoted to the topic of agitation and propaganda during the Civil War.

The main method used in this study was the method of historiographic analysis and the method of periodization. The relevance and novelty of the study lies in the fact that the majority of the studies, when considering the degree of knowledge of the topic, tend to concentrate on the works of the Soviet period, and have little regard to modern works. At the same time, modern historiography has already accumulated a significant amount of research that requires our analysis.

Key words: Russian Civil War, historiography, agitation, propaganda, ideology.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.004

A.I. GOLOVINA Graduate student, Moscow City University, Institute of Humanities, Department of History, Moscow, Russia

THE GENOCIDE OF THE JEWISH POPULATION IN THE OCCUPIED TERRITORY OF THE BRYANSK REGION IN 1941-1944

The Bryansk region was one of the largest places of massacre of the Jewish population in the territory of the RSFSR. Using the example of the Holocaust in the Bryansk region, one can trace the typical features of the extermination of the Jewish population in Central Russia. The registration of Jews and the allocation of special signes allowed the Nazis to pursue a systematic policy of genocide. The methods and forms of the Holocaust in the Bryansk region were similar to those used in Eastern Belarus and the Central regions of the RSFSR as a whole. The authors of this article, based on the documents of the fund 7021 of the Extraordinary State Commission for the Establishment and Investigation of the Atrocities of the German Fascist Invaders and Their Accomplices and the Damage They Caused to Citizens, Collective Farms, Public Organizations, State Enterprises and Institutions of the USSR (ChGK) of the State Archive of the Russian Federation, using problematic chronological and comparative historical methods Research is restoring the chronicle of the extermination of the Jewish population of the Bryansk region.

Key words: the Holocaust, the Great Patriotic War, RSFSR, genocide, fascism, Bryansk region, getto.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.005

P.Yu. GUSEV Graduate student of Bryansk State University named after ak. I.G. Petrovsky, Bryansk, Russia

POST-WAR FEATURES RESTORATION OF INDUSTRY IN THE TERRITORY OF THE BRYANSK REGION

The article describes the features of industrial restoration in the liberated Bryansk region. It tells about the consequences of the occupation and the damage caused to the region. It also shows what difficulties the residents faced and at what cost everything was restored. In addition, the article uses materials from the State Archive of the Bryansk Region (SABO) and the works of prominent researchers. Specific examples also show the features of the restoration process. The role of authorities in organization and supply in war and post-war times is outlined in detail.

Key words: restoration, occupation, enterprises, five-year plan, workers, labor.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.006

V.P. KARGAPOLOV Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor Higher School of Physical Biology and Biology of the Pacific State University, Khabarovsk, Russia

A.N. KLYUCHNIKOVA Candidate of Political Sciences, Professor of the Department theories and methods of physical culture in the Far East State Academy of Physical Culture FSBEI HE "Far Eastern Academy of Physical Culture", Khabarovsk, Russia

N.K. PRIKHODKO Candidate of Political Sciences, Associate Professor at the Higher School of Physical Culture and Biology Pacific State University, Khabarovsk, Russia

A.V. KOPYTOVA Senior lecturer at the department of humanities Sciences of the Far Eastern State Academy of Physical Culture FSBEI HE "Far Eastern Academy of Physical Culture", Khabarovsk, Russia

ATHLETES OF THE KHABAROVSK TERRITORY ON THE FRONTS OF THE GREAT PATRIOTIC WAR AND THE WAR WITH JAPAN

The relevance of this topic lies in the fact that patriotism during the Great Patriotic War became the most important value in Soviet society. The source of unprecedented mass heroism among millions of Soviet citizens was selfless devotion to their Homeland. Among them were athletes who went to the front and, showing incredible courage, not sparing themselves, stood to their deaths defending our Homeland. There is very little information about such extraordinary people. And about the warrior-athletes of the Far East, such information is presented in a very limited form.

The Soviet-Japanese war of 1945 constantly gives food for thought about the events that took place during that interesting and difficult period in the history of the USSR and the whole world. This war was intended to put an end to the division of spheres of influence between the world powers represented by the countries of the anti-Hitler coalition, and to establish a new alignment of forces in the political world order of that era. This confrontation with Japan left an extremely deep mark on history and remains in fact the only dark spot of the Second World War. Unfortunately, the events of the Soviet-Japanese war are not sufficiently covered in the media, there are practically no fiction books, no films have been made, and there is little documentary chronicle. This is probably why students of schools, secondary and higher educational institutions are poorly informed about the course of the battles in the Far East, they do not understand the significance of the Soviet Union's victory over Japan in 1945, and it was in the Far East that the end was set in World War II [5].

The article presents (by name) athletes of the Far East who fought for their homeland on the fronts in the Great Patriotic War, which ended with victory over Japan.

Key words: warriors-athletes, sports and combat awards, sports coach, team player, front-line soldier.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.007

V.A. KONEV Postgraduate student, Departament of History, Moscow City Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

A DISCUSSION IN THE JOURNAL "VOZHATYI" ABOUT THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE PIONEER MOVEMENT IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE 1980S.

In the article, based on the opinions of pioneer workers published in the magazine “Leader,” their vision of the transformation of the All-Union Pioneer Organization named after V.I. Lenin. In particular, materials from the “Magazine-Reader-Journal” section will be used, in which letters from counselors were published and analyzed by the magazine’s authors. The purpose of the article is to identify the range of problems that interested the professional community of pioneer workers in the second half of the 1980s. The author of the article concludes that the counselors looked at the transformation of the pioneer movement differently. Some of them expressed a state of despair in their letters and said that they would soon decide to leave Pioneer. In some republican organizations there was a process of creating structures independent from the All-Union Pioneer Organization. The authors of the magazine tried to analyze this process and understand how to prevent further splitting of the once united pioneer movement. Some of the leaders note that they have no idea how to work with pioneers. For the most part, this applies to small rural schools. The magazine tried to provide methodological support to such counselors. Special attention will be paid to the work of the magazine with current problems of children and youth of the period under review.

Key words: All-Union Pioneer Organization named after V.I. Lenin, pioneer, leader, pioneer periodicals, “Leader” magazine, children's and youth organizations in the USSR and Russia, perestroika in the USSR (1985-1991).

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.008

M.S. NARCISSUS PhD student, Department of Ancient History of Russia/Scientific and Historical Archive and Group of Source Studies St. Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg, Russia

REGULATION OF LAND CONFLICTS AND STRENGTHENING OF SOCIAL STRUCTURE: A STUDY OF LAW AND ORDER IN PEASANT COMMUNITIES OF THE NORTHERN REGION IN THE 16TH-17TH CENTURIES

This article presents a multi-faceted study of the social structure and internal relationships of peasant communities in the northern region of Russia from the 16th to the early 18th century. The main goal of the study is to deeply analyze the daily life and social relationships of peasants, as well as to develop a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of legal regulation and judicial proceedings that influenced everyday life and social stability in peasant communities. Various historical sources were used in the research, including acts, chronicles, economic records, personal correspondence, official documents, genealogical data, and court records. Analysis of these materials allowed the author to identify key issues that caused conflicts within the communities, such as disputes over land plots, tax burdens, and fulfilling obligations to the state and landowners. Special attention is given to the role of local gatherings and the clergy in the process of peaceful conflict resolution and maintaining order in society. Studying the diaries of clergymen, particularly the diary of Vasily Sokolov, as well as the documentation of the Vologda Diocesan News, revealed valuable information about the spiritual aspirations of peasants and the moral and ethical aspects of their lives. The article concludes that judicial proceedings and conflict regulation significantly influence the social processes within peasant communities, emphasizing the need for a detailed study of these aspects for a complete understanding of the socio-cultural dynamics of the northern Russian village during the period under consideration. The work contributes to historical science by expanding the understanding of the social history of peasantry and their interaction with state and church institutions.

Key words: peasant communities, Northern region, 16th-17th centuries, law and order, land conflicts, judicial proceedings, church and clergy, historical documents, Collection of Acts, Vasily Sokolov's diary, social structure.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.009

S.A. ORESHIN Candidate of Historical Sciences, Researcher at the Caucasus Department of the Miklukho-Maklay Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia

THE PROBLEM OF THE POLITICAL STATUS OF THE CHECHEN REPUBLIC IN THE RUSSIAN-CHECHEN NEGOTIATIONS OF THE 1990S.

The article deals with the attempts to settle the status of Chechnya, which unilaterally declared independence in 1991. The relevance of the study lies in the need to take into account historical experience when solving problems of national-state and federal construction in multiethnic regions, one of which is the North Caucasus, which increases the effectiveness of managing interethnic and interfaith relations. The study of this experience will help to avoid the emergence of new contradictions. It is important to understand why, despite numerous negotiations, including at a high level, it was not possible to resolve this issue peacefully. The article analyzes the approaches of the Russian and Chechen sides to the problem of the status of the Chechen Republic, identify the main stages of the negotiation process, their participants, the goals of the parties and the difficulties they had to face. The author used a descriptive-narrative, comparative, typological and systematic method, as well as an analysis of historical literature on this issue.

The approach of the Russian side was generally more balanced and constructive. Russia was ready to grant Chechnya broad autonomy, offering regional authority’s various options for the development of bilateral relations: a federal, confederate, associative state, granting Chechnya a special status. However, the Chechen side insisted on recognizing the legal independence of the Chechen Republic, which was unacceptable to the Russian leadership. It seems that the issue of independence was pedaled by the Dudaev administration in order to force the Kremlin to recognize the legitimacy of the separatist regime that came to power by force in the autumn of 1991. The Khasavyurt Agreements of 1996 and the Treaty on Peace and Principles of Relations between the Russian Federation and the Czech Republic of 1997 actually postponed the problem of determining the status of Chechnya and allowed the parties to interpret this issue from different positions.

Key words: Russian Federation, Chechen Republic, Chechen conflict, federal relations, regional policy, Khasavyurt Agreements, B.N. Yeltsin, D.M. Dudaev.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.010

V.V. POGARTSEV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor Pacific State University, Higher School of Pedagogy and History, Khabarovsk, Russia

THE USE OF WIRELESS AND WIRED RADIO ON THE FRONTS OF THE RUSSIAN-JAPANESE WAR (1904-1905)

The article examines the initial period of testing of wired and wireless radio in the conditions of the Russian-Japanese war (1904-1905). Being at that time the newest invention, radio proved to be an important, and sometimes necessary means of warfare in the XX century. The author analyzes a number of important military battles, such as the Battle of Tsushima, the defense of Port Arthur, the battles of Liaoyang, during which radio communication was a tool that directly influenced the results of these battles. At the end of the article, it is concluded that the Japanese side was technically more prepared in matters of radio equipment than the Russian army and navy. During the Russian-Japanese war, for the first time, the concepts of military terminology are included: "radio equipment", "radio intelligence", "radio direction finding", etc.

Key words: Russian-Japanese war, wireless and wired radio, radio equipment, radio intelligence, the Far East.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.011

V.F. POKASOV Candidate of Historical Sciences Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russia

I.A. ANUPRIENKO Candidate of Historical Sciences Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russia

G.I. MALYAVINA Candidate of Historical Sciences Stavropol State Pedagogical Institute, Stavropol, Russia

TRANSFORMATION OF THE KURDS’ CULTURE AND LOCAL TRADITIONS ON THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE TERRITORY IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE XVII CENTURY

The article undertakes an analysis of the sociocultural appearance of the Kurdish community on the territory of the Ottoman Empire during the period of breaking down old traditions and updating new ones. The main types of research sources are personal sources, ethnographic data and research from field expeditions. The relevance of the study lies in the need for a private study of the peculiarities of the everyday life of the Kurds, not as a political, but as a mental, cultural process. The practical significance of the study is due to the possibility of strengthening sociocultural ties between various ethnic groups of the Russian Federation, including the Kurds, as well as their familiarization with other faiths and religious traditions. In the methodological aspect, the content of the work can be used to highlight the cultural side of the topic of resistance of the Kurdish community to the pressure of the Ottoman Empire in the XVII-XVIII centuries. at the level of higher education institution. Scientific novelty is expressed in a new look at the coverage of the culture and traditions of the Kurds, based on the characteristics of nomadism and a syncretic approach to determining the role of Yezidism in the formation of the mental complex of the entire ethnic group as a whole. The purpose of the study is a comprehensive analysis of the sociocultural appearance of the Kurdish community of the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the XVII century. The methodological apparatus includes special historical methods, methods of historical anthropology and cultural studies. As a result of the study, the authors come to the conclusion about the combination of eudaimonic and utilitarian in Kurdish culture based on constant resistance to Turkish pressure and the urgent need to gain independence by “closing” within communal boundaries.

Key words: Kurds, Yazidism, aesthetosphere, utilitarianism, way of life, everyday life, confrontation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.012

А.М. ROGACHEV Graduate, Moscow City University Institute of Humanities, Department of Russian History, Moscow, Russia

THE USE OF STRIKEBREAKERS BY UNIONS OF ENTREPRENEURS AS A MEANS OF COUNTERING THE STRIKE MOVEMENT IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE OF THE LATE XIX – EARLY XX CENTURIES

The article discusses the features of the use of strikebreakers by unions of entrepreneurs of the Russian Empire. It is concluded that on the territory of our country, the «yellow» trade unions and labor bureaus typical of Western countries did not take stable, long-term forms. Such organizations arose, as a rule, during bursts of protest activity of workers, quickly fading away after the end of the strike wave. To combat strikes, domestic entrepreneurs had the opportunity to make extensive use of the repressive apparatus of the state, which often made it unnecessary both to search for ways of dialogue with workers and to form a reserve of loyal personnel in case of a possible strike.

Key words: strikebreaker, strikebreaking, labor movement, "yellow" trade unions, unions of entrepreneurs, strikes.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.013

D.A. SUBBOTIN Postgraduate student of the Department of History of Ulyanovsk, State Pedagogical University them. I.N. Ulyanova, Ulyanovsk, Russia

ESTABLISHMENT OF HEALTHCARE SYSTEM IN TSARIST RUSSIA OF LATE XVIII – EARLY XX CENTURIES. (USING SIMBIRSK PROVINCE AS AN EXAMPLE)

The article on archival materials attempted to reveal the formation of the health care system and the formation of a hospital complex since the beginning of the 19th century, using the example of the Simbirsk Medical Provincial Council, which was created primarily in order to carry out all relations in the medical sphere. It should be noted that urban medicine of the studied period has passed a difficult path of formation, encountering many obstacles and obstacles on its way.

Key words: zemstvos, medicine, medical institutions, hospitals, health care system, Order of public charity, control, special institutions for people with mental development problems, hospital, orphanages, health care system, director of public schools, inspector of provincial medical administration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.014

A.N. KHVASTOV Adjunct of the Military University named after Prince Alexander Nevsky Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

FORMATION OF A NEW POLITICAL CONSCIOUSNESS IN THE COURSE OF CULTURAL AND MASS WORK WITH GERMAN PRISONERS OF WAR IN THE PERIOD FROM 1941 TO 1953

The article presents the main forms and methods of propaganda work with German prisoners of war in the period from 1941 until the 1950s.

For each of the forms and methods of propaganda work with German prisoners of war: meetings, rallies of German prisoners of war, group and individual conversations, lectures and reports, wall printing, radio, question and answer evenings, group newspaper readings, library work, political circles and political information, specific historical information, actual examples of implementation are provided these forms and the results achieved.

Key words: the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army, fascism, anti-fascist activities, German prisoners of war, forms and methods of propaganda work.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.015

I.V. DARENSKAIA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Nizhny Tagil State Social and Pedagogical Institute (branch) of the Russian State Vocational Pedagogical University, Nizhny Tagil, Russia

THE "RIGHT TO APPEAL" AS A FORM OF CONTROL OVER THE ACTIVITIES OF THE STATE APPARATUS IN THE 1920S-1930S

The article examines the concept and meaning of a complaint as the realization of the "right to appeal" of a Soviet citizen and as a form of state control. The author analyzes the mechanism of receiving and considering complaints, characterizes the social composition of "complainants", classifies the reasons for appeals. The activities of the district complaint bureaus, the forms of their work and the regulatory framework of their activities are considered in detail. The study was conducted on the materials of industrial cities of the Urals.

Key words: complaint, interaction between government and society, modernization, "the great turning point".

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.016

A.H. VOITOVICH Lecturer at the Department of philosophy, foreign languages and humanitarian training, Tyumen Institute for Advanced Training of Employees of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, police lieutenant colonel, Tyumen, Russia

POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT OF THE AZERBAIJANI DIASPORA IN TYUMEN REGION IN 1989-2020

Based on population census data, the article analyzes the dynamics of the number and geography of the Azerbaijani diaspora in the Tyumen region in the period from 1989 to 2020. Conclusions are drawn about the causes of migration, the features of settlement in the Tyumen region are highlighted, and graphic data with numerical results of the study are prepared.

Key words: Azerbaijan, Azerbaijanis, Azerbaijani diaspora, demography, population, population census, Tyumen region.

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.017

A.M. STAROSTIN Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Leading Researcher, Rostov State University of Economics, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

MODERN POLITICAL STRATEGIZING IN THE CONTEXT OF COGNITIVE CONSTRUCTIVIST METHODOLOGY

The article analyzes the conceptual aspects of the modern theory of strategizing (unity of design and practical aspects) from the standpoint of cognitive constructivist methodology. The interrelation of predictive and project activities in the development of the future is shown. The optimal conditions for effective strategizing and the "golden rule of strategizing" are formulated, which consists in setting on "designing the future". In relation to modern political practice, the most likely trends of strategic impacts on the trends in the development of the global world and the transformation of Russia's political role in the medium and long term are shown.

Key words: cognitive design approach, strategizing, strategizing registers, restrictions and prohibitions in strategizing, adaptive strategies, "golden rule of strategizing", evolution management.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.018

I.YU. LEBEDEV Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of State Regulation of Economics, Faculty of MIGSU RANEPA under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

PROPERTY PROBLEM IN THE HISTORY OF ANCIENT PHILOSOPHY (PART II)

Primary systematic analysis of the problems of property and social philosophy in the works of Plato and Aristotle. Private and public property, their interdependence and differences. Types of government. Laws and their role in society. Hedonic and rationalistic principle. Aristotle on human nature and property. The concept of natural inequality, production and consumption. The role of property as a cause of war.

Key words: property, ancient philosophy, social philosophy, Plato, Aristotle, anthropic principle, the desiring and rational principle of the human soul, oligarchy, chrematistics, state, laws, incentive for private property, justice, timocracy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.019

A.M. STAROSTIN Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, leading researcher at RGEU (RINH), Rostov-on-Don, Russia

A.V. PONEDELKOV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Political Science and Ethnopolitics YuRIU RANEPA, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

CIVILIZATIONAL FORMAT REPRESENTATIONS OF MODERN RUSSIAN ELITES

The article analyzes political and civilizational paradigms (conservative, constructivist, universalist) in the representation of those modern phase transitions that are currently observed at the global and national-state level of socio-global dynamics.

Focusing both on certain shifts in the evolution of the paradigms themselves and on new priorities in their composition, the management potential of modern political and administrative elites in Russia is monitored. This is carried out on the basis of expert sociological research under the program “Civilizational uniqueness of the Russian political elite.”

The data presented and their analysis make it possible to outline priority steps for the rotation of elites and the improvement of methods for their selection and adaptation to new political and value guidelines for the socio-political development of modern Russia as a state-civilization.

Key words: civilizational approach, civilizational political science, conservative-civilizational model, secular-civilizational model, universalist model, “Russian model of management”, administrative and political elites, civilization-oriented frames, expert survey.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.020

T.G. FURMAN Candidate of Cultural Studies, Associate Professor of the Department of Administrative Law of the North-Western Institute of Management of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Saint-Petersburg, Russia

CONTRADICTIONS OF TECHNOLOGICAL SOCIETY AS A POLITICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL CONSTRUCT OF THE NATIONAL IDEA OF MODERN RUSSIA

The article examines the influence of the processes of globalization and digitalization on the very essence of the national idea of the Russian Federation. The author concludes that digital technologies have a direct impact not only on the development of society and the state, but also has a close symbiotic relationship with the civic activity of the population.

It has been proven that digitalization opens up new opportunities for the development of society, the legal sphere and the economy, and also helps to improve the standard of living of the population. A contradictory fact has been noted, according to which, regardless of the fact that the technologization of society allows one to control its digital data, information systems and technologies, and also ensure the protection of its citizens from threats and risks in the digital sphere, at the same time there are risks of interference or control from outside other countries. The author also notes the emergence of new forms of Internet participation in politics, the expansion of opportunities to influence the processes of making political and managerial decisions, necessitate further research in this area.

Key words: digitalization, technological society, national idea, Russian world, confrontation, contradictions, globalization.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.021

O.O. KERIMOV Postgraduate, South-Russia Institute of Management – branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

THE ROLE AND PLACE OF MILITARY ELITES IN THE "POWER TRIANGLE" IN THE CONCEPT OF I.R. MILLS AND MODERNITY

In this article, the author analyzes the role and place of military elites in the structure of power, based on the concept of the "power triangle" developed by the American sociologist R. Mills. The author explores how the interaction between military, political and economic elites forms the basis of power structures in the modern world, with an emphasis on the unique role and functions of military elites. The article examines the changes in the dynamics of the power of military elites in the light of globalization, technological innovations, international threats and transnational military alliances.

Key words: power triangle, military elite, R. Mills' concept of elites, power, managerial decisions, globalization.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.022

ZHANG YIFEI Postgraduate student, Faculty of Public Administration, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE INFLUENCE OF NATIONAL IDEOLOGY ON THE EVOLUTION OF CHINA'S POLITICAL SYSTEM: FROM THE 1940S TO THE PRESENT

In this article, the author examines the evolution of the political regime in the People's Republic of China, especially aspects of the rule of Mao Zedong and Xi Jinping, who during their rule introduced many ideological directions of the state's development. In the article, the author describes the main consequences of the strategic directions of China's development for a given period of time, and also describes the important features of the ideology of Mao Zedong and Xi Jinping. As a result, the author comes to the conclusion that, given the conduct of Mao Zedong's policy, it can be said that it was aimed at building socialism, modifying foreign policy, the main goal of this development direction was based on the formation of equality between the rich and the poor. Xi Jinping's ideas are taking on the direction of a comprehensive and multifaceted policy, and the way they are formulated makes it difficult for some Western states to counteract their ideas. Xi Jinping argues for the need to strengthen party oversight of all areas of development of the Chinese public and strengthen strict party discipline.

Key words: ideology, comprehensive and multifaceted politics, party supervision, Chinese public, party discipline, building socialism, modification of foreign policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.023

V.V. DEVTEREV Postgraduate student, South-Russia Institute of Management – Branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE SYSTEM OF FEDERAL RELATIONS

The article is devoted to the analysis of the structure and features of the federal structure of states. A federation is defined as a multi-level system of government that unites various territorial units, such as states or cantons, which possess certain attributes of sovereignty. The article examines the nature of federal relations as contractual and constitutional, as well as issues of separation of power and competencies between the federal center and the subjects of the federation, mechanisms for ensuring the unity and sovereignty of the state within the federal system. The author analyzes various federal states, their unique features and ways of solving problems related to governance, foreign and domestic policy, as well as economic and social integration of the subjects of the federation. Special attention is paid to the issues of territorial integrity, sovereignty of the country and methods of maintaining stability in the fed.

Key words: federation, state, integrity, sovereignty, Constitution, management methods.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.024

Z.M. GANDALOEVA Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL LIMOLOGY IN THE CONTEXT OF SUB-NATIONAL BORDERS

The article examines the issues of lymphology in the political sphere, in the context of building external and internal state borders in domestic and foreign literature. The types and tasks of lymphology are investigated based on the anthropogeographic, functional and political approach of foreign and Russian scientists. Examples of controversial issues related to the establishment of subnational borders are given. The article notes the commonality of the approach to the study of national and subnational borders.

Key words: limnology, border, research, subnational border, political limology, borderland, borderland.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.025

N.R. BALYNSKAYA Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Vice-Rector GBOU HE "South Ural State Institute of Arts" them. P.I. Tchaikovsky", Chelyabinsk, Russia

R.A. MURTAZIN Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of MiSU FSBEI HE "Magnitogorsk State Technical University named after. G.I. Nosova", Magnitogorsk, Russia

N.S. SHKURKO Candidate of Philosophy, Associate Professor of the Department of Cultural Studies Federal State Autonomous Educational Institution of Higher Education "North-Eastern Federal University named after. M.K. Ammosova", Yakutsk, Russia

TRANSFORMATION OF YOUTH POLICY RUSSIAN FEDERATION (BASED ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE WORK OF PROFILE FORUMS)

In the Russian Federation, youth policy represents one of the most important areas of activity of power structures (government) in the social sphere. The authorities see youth as a “valuable resource”, because in the near future it will be representatives of the younger generation who will integrate into the ranks of the political and business elites and will occupy status positions in the industrial, scientific, financial and cultural spheres of society. In the conditions of ideological and information wars waged against Russia, it is vital that the consciousness of the younger generation be imbued with a sense of patriotism, share the provisions of the state ideology and focus on a conscious position in protecting the interests of the state. One of the ways taken by the federal and regional authorities to “not lose young people” has been in the last decade the holding of large-scale socially prestigious events – youth forums with educational and discussion platforms, master classes, quests, and cultural events.

Key words: youth, patriotism, Rosmolodezh, Russia, course “for active youth”, forums, educational and discussion platforms.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.026

N.YU. DMITRIEV Postgraduate student, South-Russia Institute of Management – Branch of Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

THE MODEL OF THE NATIONALIZATION OF CIVIL SOCIETY AND ITS REFLECTION IN THE PRACTICE OF INTERACTION BETWEEN POLITICAL ELITES AND CIVIL SOCIETY STRUCTURES IN MODERN RUSSIA

The relevance of studying models of interaction between political elites and civil society structures is due to the fact that despite the signs of civil society fixed in political science, which are universal for countries undergoing modernization processes, the study of the processes of formation of civil society in states with a totalitarian past involves the use of special approaches to analyzing the problems of civil society development during the so-called liberal transit. This applies primarily to the post-Soviet countries, to which Russia belongs: in relation to our country, not only the so-called quantitative parameters of the functioning of civil society, reflecting the number of its various institutions, structures or elements, but also the qualitative components of the process of formation of civil society, including its role in determining the country's development strategies, should be studied. The nature of interaction with public authorities, factors constraining or contributing to the development of civil society.

The main results of the study include the provisions according to which In modern Russia there is a dominance of the model of nationalization of civil society: despite the formal recognition by the ruling elite of the need to develop and strengthen civil society institutions and dialogue with various civil associations and associations, in reality the processes under consideration are implemented under comprehensive control by the state authorities, as a result what becomes their inevitable formalization, the loss of the creative component. The considered paternalistic model of interaction between civil society institutions and the state is based on state support and guardianship of civil society, which are implemented through a number of institutional forms. At the same time, there are practically no real dialogue platforms between public authorities and various associations and associations of citizens in our country. According to the conclusion of the author of the study, in our country, civil society and its institutions have an extremely insignificant impact on various areas of the implemented state policy, which, in turn, results in an insufficiently high level of the latter and an increase in distrust of this policy on the part of the population.

Key words: society, state, state power, nationalization, public organization, non-profit organization, civil society, civil association, civil dialogue, paternalism, political elite, political party, bureaucracy, political system, statistic.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.027

D.V. FEDOROV Postgraduate student of the Department of National and Federal Relations of the Institute of Public Administration and Management of the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

NATIONAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS OF THE CONFRONTATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE WEST

The confrontation between the Russian Federation and Western countries, which began in 2014 with the reunification of Crimea with Russia and continues to this day, has reached a new, previously unknown level. This new level is characterized by total confrontation in all spheres of society: information warfare, financial and economic confrontation, ideological and cultural struggle, open armed confrontation with Western-led Ukraine and proxy battles in different regions and places of the planet. These manifestations of actions hostile to Russia by Western countries pose an existential threat to the integrity of the Russian Federation and its very continued existence.

In this article, Russia's confrontation with Western countries is considered from the point of view of studying the main activities of the state, society and individuals to strengthen the country as a whole and its ability to emerge victorious from it.

The clash of the two civilizations is already underway, and in what form it will finally result, time will tell. For an unconditional victory in this confrontation, we need to change. With the aim of this change, the main areas of activity of the state, society and individuals to strengthen Russia are determined.

Key words: Russian, ethnos, West, Russia, confrontation, ideology, national, cultural space, decolonization, elite, demography.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.028

HAN WENXIN Ph.D. student, Faculty of World Politics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

HOW PUBLIC OPINION ABOUT CHINA TRANSFORMS THE DIPLOMATIC STRATEGY BETWEEN CHINA AND THE US: HISTORICAL CONTEXT AND CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Historically, the relationship between China and the United States has been strongly influenced by public opinion about China. This influence, from the first contacts between the two countries to the present day, has shaped the development of this bilateral relationship from various perspectives. This article aims to investigate how public opinion about China has historically influenced the foreign policy strategies of the US and China, as well as the problems and adjustments in the strategy of bilateral relations in the current international situation.

In history, especially at the dawn of diplomatic relations between China and the US, American public opinion was optimistically inclined towards the prospects of cooperation with China. However, due to huge political, cultural, and ideological differences, public opinion quickly changed. During the Cold War, strategic cooperation between China and the US was strengthened in opposition to a common enemy – the USSR. In this period, American public opinion about China was primarily based on geopolitical considerations, emphasizing the importance of strategic cooperation. However, after the end of the Cold War, the influence of public opinion became more ambiguous, especially on issues such as trade, human rights, and regional security.

With the advent of the 21st century, digitalization and globalization further amplify the power of public opinion. The development of the Internet and social networks has allowed public opinion related to China to spread faster and wider around the world, simultaneously increasing the complexity of information. In this context, the influence of public opinion on the foreign policy strategies of the US and China has become more noticeable, especially on issues such as trade wars, technological rivalry, and the South China Sea. Public opinion not only shaped public perception but also largely determined the direction of political decisions.

In such an internationalized information environment, the positions of both sides also began to diverge. On a number of key issues, public opinion within both countries shows significant differences, which to some extent limits foreign policy strategy to domestic public opinion. In such conditions, the formulation and implementation of foreign policy strategy face unprecedented challenges.

Overall, public opinion about China has had a significant impact on the foreign policy strategy of the US and China over the past decades. This influence is manifested not only in the formation of official policy but also, more importantly, in the perception and expectations of the relationship between the two countries. In the modern changing international conditions, understanding and managing this influence is key to the stability and development of relations between China and the US.

Key words: Diplomatic strategy, Limitation of public opinion, External relations, Bilateral relations, Human rights issue.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.029

N.E. IVANOVA Assistant, Peoples` Friendsip University of Russia named after Patrice Lumumba (Russia), Faculty of humanities and social sciences, Department of foreign languages, Moscow, Russia

SCIENTIFIC AND EDUCATIONAL COOPERATION BETWEEN RUSSIA AND THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC ON THE EXAMPLE OF PEOPLES' FRIENDSHIP UNIVERSITY OF RUSSIA NAMED AFTER PATRICE LUMUMBA

In the article international educational cooperation on the example of the Ministry of Higher Education, Science and Technology of the Dominican Republic and Peoples' Friendship University of Russia named after Patrice Lumumba is considered as a component of international educational cooperation between the Russian Federation and Latin American countries. The basis of this cooperation is a Special cooperation agreement between the Ministry of higher education, science and technology of the Dominican Republic (MESCyT) and Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University) dated 02/03/2017. The admission and training of Dominican citizens in the areas of master and residency degrees as well as in the studies of Russian language is actively conducted in the fields of this Special agreement.

The purpose of the work is to estimate the effectiveness of the named method of cooperation between countries in the context of recruitment and training of Latin American students in the Russian Federation.

Key words: international education, Latin America, the Dominican Republic, Ministry of higher education, science and technology, master degree, residency degree.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.030

WANG FEIXIANG Graduate student of Russian Friendship University peoples named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL PROBLEMS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS OF GLOBAL AND REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT

The article discusses issues related to political problems of international relations of global and regional development. The purpose of the study is to study the political problems of international relations of global and regional development, to identify their main causes, and also to find effective ways to solve these problems. Research methods: method of analysis, comparison, logical reasoning and many others. The concept of “political problem” is defined. The main reasons for the emergence of political problems on a global and regional scale are considered. The author of the article emphasizes the importance of using an integrated approach in solving global and regional problems of a political nature, which consists of joint actions on the part of the governments of various countries and states, as well as regional authorities. A global problem is the problem of maintaining peace and preventing war between different countries and states. The problem of cybersecurity poses a serious threat to society and requires the development of solutions to protect data in the information space. An important political problem of global and regional development is the problem of climate change on Earth, in particular the temperature regime. An algorithm has been developed to solve the main political problems of international relations of global and regional development.

Purpose: The purpose of the study is to study the political problems of international relations of global and regional development, to identify their main causes, and also to find effective ways to solve these problems.

Methods: Basic research methods: method of analysis, comparison, logical reasoning and many others.

Results: The political problems of international relations of global and regional development have been studied. Their main reasons have been identified. An algorithm has been developed to solve major political problems.

Conclusions: The success of solving political problems in the global and regional aspects will depend on the well-thought-out strategy and actions of the governments of various countries, their coordinated work by seeking dialogue in resolving major issues in politics, economics, socio-cultural sphere, etc.

Key words: political problems, solution, efficiency, globalization, regional development, international relations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.031

V.V. KARAGACHEV Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science and Ethnopolitics, South Russian Institute of Management – Branch of RANEPA, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

G.G. UVAROVA Doctor of Political Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Political Science and Ethnopolitics, South Russian Institute of Management – Branch of RANEPA, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

EVALUATION CONTOURS OF THE STATE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE CRISIS OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS

The article is devoted to the assessment of key aspects of the formation and development of state environmental policy in the context of the crisis of international relations. The authors of the article consider how the global political situation affects the environmental strategy of sustainable development in the Russian Federation. Special attention is paid to the need to modernize environmental policy in order to increase its effectiveness and adaptability to changing international conditions. A number of factors influencing the state environmental policy, including economic, social, scientific and technical aspects, are evaluated. Special attention is paid to the need to integrate environmental policy with national security and foreign policy, as well as the development of international cooperation mechanisms that take into account current geopolitical challenges.

Key words: geopolitics, national security, environmental safety, assessment of environmental policy, modernization, innovative technologies, environmental protection, efficiency.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.032

LEANG TAINGSOTH PhD student, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg, Russia

POLITICAL FEATURES OF RELATIONS BETWEEN CAMBODIA AND ASEAN COUNTRIES IN THE XXI CENTURY

This article examines the political specifics of the relationship between Cambodia and the ASEAN countries. The changes that continue to shape each individual region are faced with an ongoing change of power or a change in the political motives of the country and the strategy of the main political forces. As one of the ASEAN member States, Cambodia has played a fundamental role in actively engaging and diversifying the country's foreign policy in relations with the diplomacy of small States. The purpose of the article is to analyze the political features affecting the quality of relations between Cambodia and ASEAN countries in the 21st century. The reliability and validity of the results obtained is ensured by the theoretical analysis of scientific literature, official documents and legislation of Cambodia. As a result of the conducted research, it was found that the vector of Cambodia's political behavior in the international arena is not independent, and is dictated by the political strategies of China and the United States in Southeast Asia. By the example of the analysis of the territorial conflict in the period 2000-2010. It is shown between Cambodia and Vietnam that the role of the ASEAN regional association in this conflict was manifested unevenly and unequally. This allowed external forces to strengthen the political authority of the United Nations in peacekeeping foreign policy for a while. Cambodia's use of the legal and political mechanisms of this bloc during the ASEAN presidency was not particularly constructive, but rather looked like an abuse of its powers to influence opponents within ASEAN. There is reason to believe that the situation has changed a little with India's chairmanship in ASEAN, because the new member of the bloc has approved a new political initiative regarding the functioning of this association of countries based on international law and rules.

Key words: ASEAN, regional integration, the ASEAN way, the principle of non-interference, political development, political security, diversification of foreign policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.033

K.N. LIDZHIEVA PhD student Faculty of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE FOREIGN POLICY PRIORITIES OF THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA THROUGH THE PRISM OF THE PRESIDENTS' INAUGURAL SPEECHES

Studying the foreign policy priorities of the Republic of Korea through the analysis of the inaugural speeches of the presidents will help to understand the directions of development of the foreign policy of this state. The purpose of the article is to trace the dynamics of the foreign policy priorities of the administrations of the presidents of the Republic of Korea based on the analysis of the inaugural speeches of the heads of state in the period from 1998 to 2022. The chronological framework of this study is defined as follows: the beginning of the period under review is due to the entry of the state into the new XXI century, which came during the presidential term of Kim Dae Jung, who was elected to this post in 1998, and the end is the moment of election to the post of President of the Republic of Yoon Suk Yeol in 2022. Research methods – content analysis of the inaugural speeches of six presidents in Korean and English; comparative analysis; problem-chronological approach.

Key words: Republic of Korea, Korean Peninsula, Northeast Asia, foreign policy priorities, inaugural address.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.034

L. MILOEVICH Assistant to the Ambassador of the Republic of Serbia to the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

THEORY OF REGIONAL SECURITY COMPLEXES ON THE EXAMPLE OF US CONTAINMENT OF RUSSIA SINCE 2000 IN THE CONTEXT OF EUROPEAN SECURITY

This article is devoted to the analysis of the American policy of containing Russia in the context of European security through the prism of Regional Security Complex Theory. In the article, we look back at the main postulates of the theory and separately analyze American foreign policy since 2000 through the main provisions of this theory.

Key words: theory of the regional security complex, complex, European security, regional security, policy of containing Russia.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.035

XU CHANG Postgraduate student at Russian University Friendship of Peoples named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

DON JUYUAN Postgraduate student at Russian University Friendship of Peoples named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

XU HAO Postgraduate student of Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

COMPREHENSIVELY ENHANCING SINO-RUSSIA RELATIONS TO HELP BUILD A COMMUNITY WITH A SHARED FUTURE FOR MANKIND

In an era marked by unparalleled global transformations, the universal yearning for peace and collective progress emerges as a central pillar of humanity's aspirations. The pursuit of tranquility and the advancement of development resonate deeply with the core interests of peoples across the globe. Presently, the international milieu stands at a critical juncture, necessitating the adoption of innovative governance paradigms to establish an equitable and rational global framework. Amidst this backdrop of "composite interdependence", the infusion of Chinese strategic insights and methodologies offers a beacon of hope, presenting a pathway towards the realization of shared prosperity and mutual resilience. These contributions bear significant theoretical and practical implications for the international community, underscoring the pivotal role of collaborative endeavors. China and Russia, as nations committed to the principles of responsibility and mutual support, are poised to harness this momentous opportunity. By fostering multifaceted cooperation across economic, political, cultural, and military domains, these countries are uniquely positioned to augment their bilateral ties significantly. Such synergistic alliances are instrumental in paving the way towards the formation of a unified global community, dedicated to the collective well-being and future of mankind.

Key words: Sino-Russia relations, a community with a shared future of mankind, strategy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.036

SHANCHUAN ZHIZI Ph.D. student of Institute of Area Studies of Peking University, Beijing, China

COOPERATION OF CHINA AND KYRGYZSTAN IN THE STRUGGLE WITH POVERTY: GENDER ASPECT

During the construction of a new sovereign state, Kyrgyzstan will have to solve the problems of the socio-economic plan. The problem of poverty is one of the most acute social problems of modern society Kyrgyzstan. The elimination of poverty among women affects their survival and development, and is also of great importance for interrupting the transmission of poverty from generation to generation and stimulating the long-term development of the country and society. In modern society, women face violations of their rights, there is a disparity in the wages of men and women, and women's participation in decision-making at the political level. It is noted that the biggest problems are observed in the field of education, employment, and healthcare. It is emphasized that Kyrgyzstan pays close attention to the experience of neighboring states, in this case, we are talking about the experience of the People's Republic of China.

Key words: poverty, women, gender problem, Kyrgyzstan, China.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.037

N.KH. MAMMADOVA PhD student, Baku Slavic University, Baku, Azerbaijan

NEW ELEMENTS OF THE MANIFESTATION OF THE “HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION” OF THE UNITED STATES AT THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY

The topicality of the chosen topic is due to the transformation of the geopolitical space in certain regions of the world. The article describes the new elements of manifestation that took place in the policy of humanitarian intervention, which occupied an important place in US international relations after the international terrorist act of September 11, 2001, about the methods and results of the introduction of humanism and democracy in certain regions of the world. In the conditions of informational openness of the modern world and its multilateral (economic, political, social) globalization, cases of massive violations of human rights by state bodies and other institutions (or with their consent) determined the need for international intervention. Recently, humanitarian intervention has been increasingly used as one of these forms of intervention. The experiences of such interventions, their goals, composition and effectiveness have unique historical and political characteristics. The study of these characteristics from the political side in modern conditions is relevant both from a scientific-theoretical and political-practical point of view. The purpose of the work is to analyze new elements of the manifestation and methods of application of “humanitarian intervention” that manifested itself in US foreign policy after the terror of 2001. The methods of comparative complex, factorial, discursive and statistical analysis are used in the work. It can be concluded that the active and ideological foreign policy doctrine of George W. Bush not only shaped the image of the United States as a military interventionist in the international arena and justified its use of a dominant position in the world, but also ensured the spread of its zone of influence to the whole world in connection with the events of September 11. Moreover, criticism of the ideological foundations of interference in foreign policy began to appear already in 2006 with the change of the majority in Congress, after which the political platform completely changed with the victory of the Democratic Party in the US presidential election.

Key words: United States, international terrorism on September 11, humanitarian intervention, paternalism, right of preventive self-defense.

REVIEWS AND SCIENTIFIC REVIEWS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2024.107.2.038

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, editor-in-chief of the publishing house "Science Today", Moscow, Russia

ON THE QUESTION ABOUT DIRECTIONS OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH BY REGIONOLOGY

The article makes an attempt to analyze the scientific publications of Russian and foreign authors of the last two years in peer-reviewed journals on regional studies in order to determine the vector of scientific research and current publications on regional and municipal problems. A conclusion is made about the development of regionalology as an established new interdisciplinary scientific direction.

Key words: regional science, interdisciplinary scientific discipline, scientific research, current publications, areas of research.

Scientific Journal “Issues of National and Federative Relations”. Volume 13. Issue 12 (105), 2023

CONTENTS

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

  • Gogolev A.I., Akimova V.S. History of the Study of Physical Anthropology on the Ethnogenesis of the Yakuts (XIX-XXI Centuries)
  • Huseynova A.A., Abdulpatakhova H.M. Ethnic History of Mountain Jews and Interaction with East Caucasian Peoples: Aspects of Socio-Economic Development and Religious Policy
  • Dzagurova N.Kh., Gapeeva M.S. The Elimination of Illiteracy as a Way of Involving the Peoples of the North Caucasus in the Bolshevik Modernization of the 1920s-1930s
  • Dmitriev I.V. Implementation of Russian National Policy in the First Years of Soviet Power: Scientific Literature of the Early 19th Century
  • Ermakova E.V. Paradoxes of the Belgian Monarchy in the XXI Century
  • Ermolenko E.V. Social and Ideological Metamorphoses of Early Soviet Culture in 1917-1920s
  • Zakomaldin M.M. Popular Universities as a Factor of Preservation Socio-Cultural Unity of the Russian Post-Revolutionary Abroad (Historical Aspect)
  • Ivanov M.A. Nizhny Novgorod Merchants in the Structure of City Self-Government in the Post-Reform Period (Based on Materials of the City Duma of Nizhny Novgorod)
  • Ilychev I.V. The Development of the Livestock Sector of Agriculture in the Ulyanovsk Region in 1976-1982
  • Ishemgulov M.N. Territory as a Factor of Ethnic Consolidation (on the Example of the Bashkir Ethnic Group)
  • Magomedov A.Dz. Dagestan on the Eve and During the Persian Campaign of Peter I
  • Nesterov Yu.S. The Struggle of Political Parties for the Army in 1917 (Based on the Materials of the Simbirsk Province)
  • Omarov A.I. From the Experience of Russian Governance in Dagestan in the First Half of the XIX Century
  • Smirnova Y.V., Golovina A.I. The History of the Holocaust on the Territory of the RSFSR in Russian and Foreign Historiography
  • Chitaev N.E., Lyubimov A.A. From the History of the Resettlement of the Volga Germans to the Priishimye
  • Jin Weizhou. Status Quo and Analysis of Language Use of Russians in Tachen (Chuguchak) Xinjiang China

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

  • Endryushko A.A. Ethnosocial Distance and Ethnic Stereotypes: Methodology of Study and Dynamics of Change Against the Backdrop of Special Military Operation

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

  • Gabdrafikov I.M., Khaliulina A.I. The Republic of Bashkortostan: the Ethnic Situation According to the Results of the Census of the All-Russian Population Census of 2020-2021
  • Nikulin M.A., Gavrilkin A.V., M. Masud Ibrahim. State Coups and Economic Development in Africa: Interconnection and Challenges
  • Inkheev A.B. Cognitive Analysis of Statements by Japanese Officials on the Concept of the Indo-Pacific Region and QUAD
  • Safin F.G., Kamaletdinov D.A., Kulsharipov F.R. The Social Foundations of the Influence of the Market Economy on the Financial Situation of the Population in a Multiethnic Region (on the Example of the Republic of Bashkortostan)
  • Kostina T.A. Territorial Organization of Local Self-Government in the Subjects of the Russian Federation of the Ural Federal District
  • Kuznetsov I.M. The Profile of Russian Identity and Patriotic Attitudes of the Population of a Large Industrial City in the Conditions of SMO (the Case of Magnitogorsk)
  • Gabdrafikov I.M., Shilkin D.A. On the Dynamics of the Number of Russians in the Republic of Bashkortostan According to the Results of the All-Russian Population Census of 2020-2021
  • Savitsky R.S. Organizational Aspects of Patriotic Education of a Citizen in the Russian Federation
  • Khaliulina A.I., Safin F.F., Shilkin D.A. Patriotism as a Factor in the Formation of Russian Identity (According to Surveys in Bashkortostan)
  • Khaliulina A.I. Functioning of Social and Communication Systems in the Context of the Media Ecosystem
  • Gabrielyan G.R. Development of National Internet Platforms as a Factor in Ensuring Information Security of the PRC

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

  • Belyaeva E.A., Alekseeva M.E., Goldenberg M.S. The State Support for Patriotic Civil Society Institutions in the Russian Federation (Using the Example of the All-Russian Public-Government Organization «Russian Military Historical Society»)
  • Kushnerov I.S. Protection of a Private Investor by the State in the Sanctions Regime
  • Levsha A.V. The Main Directions of Digitalization of Regional Management

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

  • Morozov D.A., Medvedev N.P. The Specifics of the Processes of Transformation of the Modern World Order: the Main Conflicts
  • Alekseenko O.A. Specifics of the US Military Strategy in the Arctic Region
  • Volokh V.A., Dmitrieva T.N. Forced Migrants in Russia and France: Integration Trajectories
  • Kuleshova N.S., Chen Hanzhi. Political Interaction of the PRC with Africa in the Context of Economic Interaction
  • Petrosyan F.A. Sectoral System of Cooperation in the Northern Direction of Russia’s Foreign Policy
  • Rakityanskiy N.M., Tsaritsyna P.M. The Political Elites of France in the Context of Mental Research (Part 1)
  • Shakhbanova A.S. Saudi Arabia and Iran: from Confrontation to Dialogue

STUDENT SCIENCE

  • Tarilova M.V. The Problems of Migration to Russia from the CIS Countries at the Present Stage
  • Chuzhikov N.A. The Concept of Liberal Nationalism in the Works of P.B. Struve

NATIONAL HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY AND ETHNOGRAPHY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.003

A.I. GOGOLEV Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov, Yakutsk, Russia

V.S. AKIMOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor North-Eastern Federal University named after M.K. Ammosov, Yakutsk, Russia

HISTORY OF THE STUDY OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY ON THE ETHNOGENESIS OF THE YAKUTS (XIX-XXI CENTURIES)

The article provides an anthropological description of the Yakuts (Sakha people) on the basis of the integrated use of materials on language, archeology and anthropology, written data. The physical anthropology of the Sakha people (Yakuts) has been the subject of scientific research mainly since the XIX century (M.L. Gecker, R.K. Maak, A.F. Middendorf, V.L. Seroshevsky, etc.). In the second half of the XX century, the range of sources on the anthropology of the Yakuts expanded and deepened due to data on the biochemical analysis of blood and genetic materials. At the same time, of particular interest are the molecular genetic data of the blood, according to which ancient Caucasoid components were found in their blood, and the presence of an ancient Caucasoid impurity was partly due. So, according to linguistic data, the Yakuts are part of the Turkic group of languages of the Altai language family, they are cattle breeders (they contain cattle and horses). In their anthropology, they belong to the Central Asian small race.

Key words: Yakuts, ethnogenesis, Baikal anthropological type, ancient Turks, gene pool, Arctic small race, molecular genetic analysis, Evenks, Evens, Paleoasiatics.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.001

A.A. HUSEYNOVA Ph.D. Associate Professor, Dagestan State University, Department of "History of Dagestan", Makhachkala, Russia

H.M. ABDULPATAKHOVA Postgraduate student, Dagestan State University, Department of "History of Dagestan", Makhachkala, Russia

ETHNIC HISTORY OF MOUNTAIN JEWS AND INTERACTION WITH EAST CAUCASIAN PEOPLES: ASPECTS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND RELIGIOUS POLICY

The article examines the issues of the ethnic history of mountain Jews, their relations with the East Caucasian peoples, whose ethno-cultural ties influenced the socio-economic development of the population of the region and were expressed in mutual influence in the field of material and spiritual cultures, linguistic borrowings of mountain Jews, both with the peoples of Dagestan and the Eastern Caucasus as a whole. The article describes the main stages, ways and time of settlement of the ancestors of the mountain Jews who were settled from Tabasaran to Absheron, as well as in small groups – in Albanian cities south of the Kura River.

The article examines the religious policy of the Sasanian Shahinshahs Shapur II (309-379), Yezdigerd II (438-457) Peroz (459-484), his son Kavad I (489-531) and the son of Kavad Khosrov I Anushirvan (531-579), which contributed to mass migration Jews from the territory of Sasanian Iran to the Eastern Caucasus. In this regard, it is quite possible that the settlements are mainly.

Key words: Armenia, Sasanian Iran, Byzantium, Eastern Caucasus, Khosrow I Anushirvan, mazdahids.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.002

N.KH. DZAGUROVA PhD in History Senior Scientific Associate, North Ossetian Institute for Humanities and Social Studies – branch of Vladikavkaz Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladikavkaz, Russia

M.S. GAPEEVA PhD in History Senior Scientific Associate, North Ossetian State University named after Kosta Levanovich Khetagurov, Vladikavkaz, Russia

THE ELIMINATION OF ILLITERACY AS A WAY OF INVOLVING THE PEOPLES OF THE NORTH CAUCASUS IN THE BOLSHEVIK MODERNIZATION OF THE 1920S-1930S

The purpose of this study is to analyze the process of literacy elimination in the North Caucasus in the 1920s-1930s. The subject of the study is a wide range of measures implemented by the state during the study period to overcome illiteracy in the North Caucasus. The object of the study is the forms and methods of work of the party and Soviet authorities for the elimination of illiteracy.

The choice of chronological framework is due to the need to cover the period that is most indicative for understanding the specifics of the Bolshevik state policy aimed at the development of the emerging Soviet space.

The novelty of the research lies in the use of a number of archival sources concerning measures to combat illiteracy in the North Caucasus introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

The methodological basis of the research is the method of system analysis, which made it possible to recreate the reality of the events and processes under consideration to the greatest extent and allowed us to consider the elimination of illiteracy in the North Caucasus of the 1920s-1930s in the context of extensive modernization processes aimed at solving issues of socialist construction.

Based on the complex of measures carried out, it is concluded that the eradication of illiteracy carried out in the 1920s and 1930s contributed to the active involvement of the peoples of the North Caucasus in social production.

Key words: North Caucasus, literacy eradication, social production.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.004

I.V. DMITRIEV Founder, «Vinylmarkt», Moscow, Russia

IMPLEMENTATION OF RUSSIAN NATIONAL POLICY IN THE FIRST YEARS OF SOVIET POWER: SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE OF THE EARLY 19TH CENTURY

The national policy of Russia is an important scientific problem, the relevance of which in the light of the international situation and the implementation of the course of individual countries to overcome mass migrations and interethnic conflicts is gaining momentum. The article is aimed at a historiographical review of scientific literature on Russian national policy at the beginning of the 19th century. During this period, in contrast to Soviet historiography, the term “nation” received a new meaning. The significant immersion into the depth of the topic being studied by scientists was reflected in the study of such concepts as “nationalism” and “national-cultural autonomy”. Literature of the early 2000s. took a new approach to the conclusions of the authors, who put at the forefront the national principle of the federal form of government, which influenced the inequality of ethnic groups and their isolation. The problem of the evolution of multi-ethnic Russian statehood at the beginning of the 19th century began to be analyzed from the standpoint of ethnopolitical, socio-economic and cultural integration of peoples in the Russian Federation. Particular attention in the historiography of 2000-2020s. allocated to the People's Commissariat for Nationalities of the RSFSR. Among the independent group of research works, works that examine the formation of the ethnic elite and its role in the national politics of Russia stand out. The presented analytical review of scientific literature allowed the author of the article to highlight independent topics in the study of Russian national policy in the first years of Soviet power. It is concluded that over the past two decades, scientists have raised new facts, clarified the information previously received by their predecessors, and created independent scientific schools in the field of nation-state building in Russia.

Key words: national policy, modern historiography, Russia in the 1920s.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.005

E.V. ERMAKOVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of French Language, Moscow State Institute of International Relations (University) of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia, Moscow, Russia

PARADOXES OF THE BELGIAN MONARCHY IN THE XXI CENTURY

Throughout the twentieth century. The political influence of the Belgian kings was steadily declining, which forced the institution of the monarchy to adapt to the rapid changes in society both within the kingdom and beyond its borders. Nowadays, the main critics of the monarchical regime in Belgium are supporters of republican views and Flemish separatists. Despite the obvious decrease in the real power of the king, today there is a surge of interest among ordinary Belgians in the life of King Philip and his family, which is expressed in the growth of the moral influence of the monarchy on society. There were periods in the history of the country when the kings of the Belgians were especially popular among the population, which contributed to the strengthening of their personal authority. Today, in this paradoxical situation, the future of the kingdom depends both on the personality of the monarch himself and on the degree of mediatization of the entire dynasty in a communication-oriented society. But the successful PR initiatives of the current royal family immediately cause sharp criticism in the Flemish press and other political circles, which consider the existing regime outdated. The question is whether the institution of the Belgian monarchy can take its rightful place above the political fray in a country plagued by long-standing, irreconcilable ethnic differences.

Key words: Belgium, monarchy, popularity, republicans, Flemish separatists, King Philip of the Belgians, mediatization, PR, mass media, press, royal family, interethnic contradictions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.006

E.V. ERMOLENKO Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of International Cooperation Institute of Management and Regional Development Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration, Moscow, Russia

SOCIAL AND IDEOLOGICAL METAMORPHOSES OF EARLY SOVIET CULTURE IN 1917-1920S

The article examines the ideological and socio-political factors that led to the emergence of a new Soviet culture as a historical phenomenon that had no analogues in the previous periods of human civilization. The author focuses his attention both on the objective trends in the socio-cultural development of Russian society in this period and on the activities of the new revolutionary government established in Russia after October 1917, aimed at transforming all spheres and aspects of the former Russian culture.

In this regard, the relevance of the study is because culture is one of the most important spheres of public life that determines the formation of a human personality, its social development, attitude to oneself and to the world around. Based on this, the experience of building a new Soviet culture certainly arouses some interest, since the Bolsheviks largely managed to form new meanings and values in Russian society and change the practice of cultural construction in the country. This circumstance is especially important in the modern period of history, when in many respects the Russian society has lost the previous guidelines of cultural, value development, and it is finding new ones. Based on this, the experience of both theoretical development and practical construction of a new culture in the early Soviet period will undoubtedly contribute to the development and use of the most advanced methods and practices during the implementation of modern cultural policy in the new Russia at the beginning of the XXI century.

The scientific novelty lies in the fact that the author, based on historical material, literature and sources, showed all the dialectical complexity of the processes of cultural construction in the early years of Soviet power. The author underlined that they were far from being fully determined solely by the practical, tactical tasks of the Bolshevik leadership, as well as by the ideologems of Marxism, to large extent, they had a historical and objective nature, determined by the socio-cultural trends of global civilizational development during this period.

Key words: culture, ideology, Bolsheviks, values, symbols, power, society, traditions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.007

M.M. ZAKOMALDIN Senior Lecturer, Department of Social, Humanitarian and Economic Disciplines, Ufa Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa

POPULAR UNIVERSITIES AS A FACTOR OF PRESERVATION SOCIO-CULTURAL UNITY OF THE RUSSIAN POST-REVOLUTIONARY ABROAD (HISTORICAL ASPECT)

Numerous emigrant scientific, educational, educational and other organizations and institutions operated for a long time in the Russian post-revolutionary abroad. In many ways, thanks to their activities, it was possible to counteract assimilation and denationalization processes. Emigrant scientific and educational institutions, national universities established in large expatriate diasporas have become centers of cultural and educational activities. The potential of the representatives of the national creative intelligentsia made it possible to create a kind of socio-cultural space in which the education of emigrant youth was successfully carried out for quite a long time.

Key words: emigration, post-revolutionary abroad, educational and educational activities, people's University, higher school, education, education of youth.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.008

M.A. IVANOV Lecturer of the Department of Complex Humanities of the Russian State Social University, Moscow, Russia

NIZHNY NOVGOROD MERCHANTS IN THE STRUCTURE OF CITY SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE POST-REFORM PERIOD (BASED ON MATERIALS OF THE CITY DUMA OF NIZHNY NOVGOROD)

This article is devoted to the study of the activities of the Nizhny Novgorod merchants in the structure of Nizhny Novgorod city government in the period 1870-1917, from the initial stage of urban reform to the October Revolution of 1917. The paper provides a wide range of statistical data concerning the number of the merchant class in the city government. The participation of its representatives in various city and provincial commissions is characterized.

Key words: merchants, Duma, self-government, estate, representation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.009

I.V. ILYCHEV Applicant of the Mordovian State Pedagogical University named after M.E. Evseviev”, Saransk, Russia; physical education teacher at the Moscow Aviation Institute, Moscow, Russia

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE LIVESTOCK SECTOR OF AGRICULTURE IN THE ULYANOVSK REGION IN 1976-1982

The article is devoted to an urgent and still insufficiently studied problem in the regional aspect in modern realities. The purpose of the article is to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the development of animal husbandry in the Ulyanovsk region in 1976-1982. The methodological basis of the article is a set of general scientific and special historical principles and methods of scientific research. Such methods as descriptive-narrative, problem-chronological, comparative-historical, historical-system and statistical analysis methods were used in the work. The author, on the basis of archival materials first introduced into scientific circulation, seized from the storage facilities of the State Archive of the Ulyanovsk Region and the State Archive of the Latest History of the Ulyanovsk region, statistical materials and periodicals, reviewed the process of implementing a comprehensive program of measures aimed at intensifying agricultural production in the Ulyanovsk region, traced the dynamics of the development of the livestock industry in the time period under consideration, as well as achievements in agricultural production were evaluated. In conclusion, the author came to the conclusion that in the Ulyanovsk region in 1976-1982, the range of measures carried out by the party authorities aimed at intensifying the development of the livestock sector of agriculture certainly brought results, but still this turned out to be insufficient in the conditions of the growing crisis in agriculture in order to fully fulfill the tasks set by the party.

Key words: Ulyanovsk region, agriculture, animal husbandry, collective farm, state farm, breeding, agricultural production.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.010

M.N. ISHEMGULOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Junior Researcher at the R.G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnology – OSP of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

TERRITORY AS A FACTOR OF ETHNIC CONSOLIDATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE BASHKIR ETHNIC GROUP)

The article analyzes the territory of settlement as a marker of ethnic identity of Bashkirs. On the basis of the key moments of the history of the Bashkir people, the manifestation of space (territory) is considered as an ethnoconsolidating factor. The study revealed that traditionally Bashkir native land acquires a sacred meaning and is mythologized. The priority of land relations is clearly manifested in the fact of preserving the patrimonial right of the Bashkirs within the Russian Empire. During crucial periods in the history of the Bashkir people, the dominant issues are often the problems of rights to the territory.

Key words: sacred territory, ethnic identity, ethnic consolidation, myth, mobilization of ethnicity, share, patrimonial law.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.011

A.DZ. MAGOMEDOV M.H. teacher, "Dagestan State University", Department of “History of Dagestan”, Makhachkala, Russia

DAGESTAN ON THE EVE AND DURING THE PERSIAN CAMPAIGN OF PETER I

The article examines the internal political situation in Dagestan on the eve and during the Persian campaign of Peter I. The political fragmentation of the region significantly complicated the advancement and strengthening in the Caucasus-Caspian region, although the territory of modern Dagestan during this historical period was one of the promising directions in eastern foreign policy for Russia. A large role in the article is given to the confrontation between three regional powers that had their own interests in this region, such as the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire and Safavid Iran. Peter I, understanding the complexity and risks of being drawn into a full-scale war for Russia in the east, committed and demonstrated the thoroughness of Russia’s foreign policy in this region. The topic of the Expeditionary Army is also touched upon, which in the future turned into the Lower Corps and followed the precepts of Peter I, serving faithfully to Russia.

Key words: Peter I, Lower Corps, Caucasus-Caspian region, Surkhay Khan I, Dagestan, Safavid Iran, M.A. Matyushkin.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.012

YU.S. NESTEROV Assistant of the Department of History of the Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after I.N. Ulyanov, Ulyanovsk, Russia

THE STRUGGLE OF POLITICAL PARTIES FOR THE ARMY IN 1917 (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF THE SIMBIRSK PROVINCE)

The author analyzes the activities of local organizations of political parties in the military units of the garrisons of the Simbirsk province after the February events of 1917. It is concluded that the Bolshevik organizations had an undoubted success in the struggle for the masses of soldiers. They won one victory after another in the confrontation with the Socialist Revolutionaries and the Menshevik Defencists.

Key words: Volga region, Simbirsk garnison, soldiers, regimental committee, party organization, military work.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.013

A.I. OMAROV Doctor of History Professor, "Dagestan State University" Department of "History of Dagestan", Moscow, Russia

FROM THE EXPERIENCE OF RUSSIAN GOVERNANCE IN DAGESTAN IN THE FIRST HALF OF THE XIX CENTURY

The article examines the experience of Russian administrative management in the North-Eastern Caucasus in the first half of the XIX century. An attempt is made to analyze various forms of management (bailiff system, military district, commandant's management), to identify their specifics, main content, features of functioning, chronology.

The factual material shows that, despite the fact that many areas of the region were covered by military operations, the Russian government is making a number of attempts to introduce different forms of governance in the controlled territory.

Many elements of administrative and military management will be included in the "military-people's" system, which with minor changes was preserved until 1917. This allowed local societies to gradually, slowly, but surely adapt to the new, imperial reality. Accordingly, it can be stated that the Russian government in the first half of the XIX century uses the whole range of measures aimed at.

Key words: Administration, politics, bailiff, district, management, reforms, commandant.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.014

Y.V. SMIRNOVA Associate professor at the Department of history, Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia

A.I. GOLOVINA Graduate student, Moscow City University, Moscow, Russia

THE HISTORY OF THE HOLOCAUST ON THE TERRITORY OF THE RSFSR IN RUSSIAN AND FOREIGN HISTORIOGRAPHY

World War II is one of the most tragic pages in the history of the 20th century. It drew more than three-quarters of the world's population into its orbit and was the bloodiest and most destructive. Committed by the Nazis during their twelve-year reign in Germany, and especially during World War II, atrocities have no analogues in the history of human civilization. One of the components of the practice of destruction is the Holocaust. This term refers to the mass destruction of certain peoples during the Second World War, the death of a significant part of the European population during the systematic persecution and destruction by the Nazis and their accomplices in Germany and in the captured territories in 1933-1945.

The Holocaust was a state-organized, systematic persecution and destruction of a number of European peoples by Nazi Germany. In the history of Holocaust research, there is a problem of identifying victims, that is, who is considered victims. Some scholars tend to limit the concept of the Holocaust solely to the persecution and destruction of Jews, based on the idea of the uniqueness of Jewish genocide, that is, the intention of total destruction. Another view shared by many anti-fascists and researchers of fascism is the recognition of all victims of Nazi terror, who were systematically driven to death camps, killed in gas chambers and burned in crematoriums. The occupied territory of the RSFSR, where the policy of genocide was also implemented, did not go unnoticed by Nazi criminals.

In this regard, the authors of this article, using problem-chronological and comparative-historical research methods, turned to the understanding and analysis of domestic and foreign literature devoted to the Holocaust on the territory of the RSFSR in order to identify the state of study of this topic.

Key words: the Holocaust, the Great Patriotic War, RSFSR, genocide, fascism.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.015

N.E. CHITAEV Student of the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities Ishim Pedagogical Institute named after P.P. Ershov (branch) Tyumen State University, Ishim, Russia

A.A. LYUBIMOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of History, socio-economic and social disciplines Tyumen State University (branch) named after P.P. Ershov, Ishim, Russia

FROM THE HISTORY OF THE RESETTLEMENT OF THE VOLGA GERMANS TO THE PRIISHIMYE

In the article, the authors consider the reasons for the resettlement of Volga Germans to Siberia and, specifically, to the Priishimye, using the example of several families, describe their path and further life in a new place. They describe the creation and work of Germans in the labor army. They raise the issue of the need for such an ambiguous policy during the war years. The results of the resettlement of Volga Germans are summarized.

Key words: Klepikovskoye village, Priishimye, Volga Germans, repression.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.037

JIN WEIZHOU Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

STATUS QUO AND ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE USE OF RUSSIANS IN TACHEN (CHUGUCHAK) XINJIANG CHINA

This article analyzes the use of the Russian language in Tacheng (Xinjiang). Xinjiang is one of the regions where the largest number of Russians are concentrated, especially in Tacheng. However, in Tacheng, Russians' use of their native language has declined and the Russian language is in danger of extinction: almost all Russians use Chinese to communicate, and some Russians use both Kazakh and Uyghur languages. The reasons for this phenomenon lie in the following: firstly, the small size of its population; and secondly, the way of life, widespread interethnic marriages and the low use of the Russian language in the area. The language and writing of Russians in China need political protection. The protection of the Russian language and writing should play an important role for the Russian cultural association, and therefore it is important to consolidate efforts to ensure the preservation of the language and cultural heritage.

Key words: Tacheng, Xinjiang, Russian in China (Chinese Russian), Russian usage status, languages of endangered minorities, language protection, cultural preservation.

HISTORY AND THEORY OF POLITICS

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.018

A.A. ENDRYUSHKO Candidate of sociological sciences, Research Fellow of the Center for the Study of Interethnic Relations, Institute of Sociology of the FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

ETHNOSOCIAL DISTANCE AND ETHNIC STEREOTYPES: METHODOLOGY OF STUDY AND DYNAMICS OF CHANGE AGAINST THE BACKDROP OF SPECIAL MILITARY OPERATION

The article presents the results of an intelligence study on the dynamics of interethnic attitudes of Russians (Russian majority) towards Chechens against the backdrop of the special military operation (SMO) and changes in the information background in the media in relation to them. Comparisons are made with other ethnic groups – Uzbeks (as associated with immigrants) and Belarusians (as closest to Russians). The empirical basis of the study was the data from an online survey in the Moscow region (autumn 2023, 498 respondents). The results showed that the change in discourse in the media against the backdrop of the SMO at this stage did not have a significant impact on the interethnic attitudes of the Russian majority towards people of other nationalities, in particular, towards “Caucasians”. Attitudes towards Chechens are (as before the SMOO) on the same level as attitudes towards Uzbeks – to both groups, Russians express a much lower degree of readiness to interact in different spheres of communication than to Belarusians. The article also proposed and tested an approach to the study of ethnic stereotypes based on the synthesis of the social distance scale and the model of the content of stereotypes (according to S. Fisk). Evidence suggests that testing stereotypes at different levels of social interaction may indeed be beneficial. However, this is more likely to be typical for groups towards which there is a fairly high degree of non-acceptance – in this case, ethnic stereotypes may differ at different levels of social distance.

Key words: ethnosocial distance, ethnic stereotypes, interethnic attitudes, interethnic relations, media, special military operation, attitude towards Chechens.

POLITICAL INSTITUTIONS, PROCESSES AND TECHNOLOGIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.016

I.M. GABDRAFIKOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher at the Department of Ethnopolitology of the R.G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research – OSP of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

A.I. KHALIULINA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher at the Department of Ethnopolitology of the R.G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research – OSP of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN: THE ETHNIC SITUATION ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF THE CENSUS OF THE ALL-RUSSIAN POPULATION CENSUS OF 2020-2021

The article analyzes the ethnic composition of the population in the Republic of Bashkortostan based on the results of the All-Russian Population Census of 2020-2021. The results are compared with the data from previous censuses in the region. The study revealed new ethnodemographic trends that were not previously typical for the republic according to the results of the population censuses of 2002 and 2010. A comparison of the census results with the data of current statistics shows that their indicators differ markedly from each other. An analysis of the ethnic indicators of the census results indicates that ethnic groups in the republic showed a multidirectional dynamics of their numbers. Another feature of the results of the last two censuses is the rather high proportion of those who did not indicate their national ethnicity.

Key words: Rosstat, Bashstat, Russia, Bashkortostan, Ufa, All-Russian population census, ethnic statistics, ethnic composition, ethnic groups, ethnicity and nationality.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.017

M.A. NIKULIN Candidate of Historical Sciences, Assistant of the Department of Theory and history of international relations of the Russian University Friendship of Peoples named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

A.V. GAVRILKIN Russian University student Friendship of Peoples named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

M. MASUD IBRAHIM Russian University student Friendship of Peoples named after Patrice Lumumba, Moscow, Russia

STATE COUPS AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA: INTERCONNECTION AND CHALLENGES

Introduction. The article is dedicated to the analysis of state coups in Africa and their influence on the economic development of the region. From 1952 to the present, African countries have encountered numerous events of an internal political nature, including military state coups in Egypt, Zimbabwe, Sudan, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, and political crises in Libya, Egypt, and the Central African Republic, which have affected political instability, economic recession, and the strengthening of terrorist structures. In turn, these problems, particularly the latter, pose a security threat to the states in the region. This is precisely why the scientific and practical relevance of the study lies in the necessity of studying the interdependence between state coups in African countries and the subsequent changes, including in the economic aspect.

Objective and tasks. The objective of this research is to study the relationship between state coups and economic development in Africa. The tasks of this study include: 1) reviewing the historical context of state coups in African nations; 2) investigating the impact of state coups on the economic condition of African countries that have undergone this stage; 3) identifying scenarios for the development of African countries after a change in power.

Methods. The achievement of the research objective and successful resolution of the set tasks are accomplished using one of the forecasting methods – scenario building, within which the authors examine the concept of "Vision 2050" of the ECOWAS and propose a possible scenario for the development of African countries after a series of state coups.

Results. As a result of the research, it was possible to trace the evolution of state coups in Africa, their impact on the economic development of the countries, and to formulate one of the possible scenarios for the development of African states after the stage of unconstitutional power transition.

Conclusions. Based on the research, the authors concluded that state coups are closely related to the development of African nations. On one hand, they serve as obstacles to economic, democratic, and regional development, and on the other hand, they stimulate both intra-state and regional forces to overcome crisis situations.

Key words: state coups, economic development, social development, African countries' politics, ECOWAS, coup belt.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.019

A.B. INKHEEV Postgraduate student at the Diplomatic Academy of the Russian Foreign Ministry, Moscow, Russia

COGNITIVE ANALYSIS OF STATEMENTS BY JAPANESE OFFICIALS ON THE CONCEPT OF THE INDO-PACIFIC REGION AND QUAD

The article is devoted to the cognitive analysis of statements by Japanese officials on the concept of the Indo-Pacific region and QUAD. The author focuses on Japan's policy aimed at creating an image of a democratic, pacifist country with the rule of law and democratic values, but at the same time a state capable of fighting back. In this context, QUAD, the driver of which is Japan, provides it with the opportunity to expand the scope of its own obligations, providing a counterweight to China. All this is consistently reflected in the statements of Japanese officials.

Key words: Cognitive Analysis, QUAD, Japan, Indo-Pacific region.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.020

F.G. SAFIN Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher of the Department of Ethnopolitology, R.G. Kuzeev Institute for Ethnological Studies – Subdivision of the Ufa Federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor of the Department of Philosophy, History and Social Engineering of the Ufa State Petroleum Technical University, Ufa, Russia

D.A. KAMALETDINOV Junior Researcher at the Institute of Ethnological Research named after R.G. Kuzeev – OSP FGBNU Ufa Federal ResearchCenter of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

F.R. KULSHARIPOV Postgraduate student of the Department of EthnopolitologyInstitute of Ethnological Research named after R.G. Kuzeev – OSP of the Ufa Federal ResearchCenter of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

THE SOCIAL FOUNDATIONS OF THE INFLUENCE OF THE MARKET ECONOMY ON THE FINANCIAL SITUATION OF THE POPULATION IN A MULTIETHNIC REGION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN)

Based on the materials of recent ethnosociological studies, the social foundations of the influence of the market economy on the financial situation of the population in multinational Bashkortostan are considered. The peculiarity of the region is that more than half of the population of the republic lives in rural areas. Despite this, over the past 30 years of the formation of a market economy, the population has adapted to its conditions to a certain extent. One of the indicators of the integration of the population into market relations is the level of financial situation. It was revealed that the difficult economic situation, low wages and pensions in general have a negative impact on the overall level of material well-being of the population. It has been established that despite the existing stratification of the population by income, ethnosociological studies show a less pessimistic mood of ethnic groups in the republic. Ethnosociological studies have revealed that a very significant part of the population is confident in improving their standard of living. Another significant group of respondents, regardless of nationality, expressed the opinion that their standard of living is likely to increase. At the same time, surveys have shown the existing ethnosocial differentiation among ethnic groups in the republic, which is very typical and characteristic of the market economy as a whole.

Key words: market economy, multiethnic region, social stratification, differentiation, ethnic groups, financial situation, satisfaction, income level.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.022

T.A. KOSTINA Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science and international relations historical and philological, Faculty of Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk, Russia

TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION OF LOCAL SELF-GOVERNMENT IN THE SUBJECTS OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION OF THE URAL FEDERAL DISTRICT

The article analyzes the state policy on the territorial organization of local self-government (LSG) in the Ural Federal District (UrFO).

The purpose of the study is to identify the main approaches of the subjects of the Russian Federation included in the Ural Federal District to the implementation of the state policy on the development of LSG in terms of creating a system of municipalities on their territory. A systematic approach and institutional, comparative, as well as historical scientific methods are used. The following priorities characteristic of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the development of the system of municipalities are highlighted: 1) the spread of the practice of moving away from the settlement principle of creating municipalities and the transition to the formation of municipal districts uniting rural settlements and urban districts; 2) the municipal elite of Chelyabinsk took a course to abolish the urban district with inner-city district municipalities, one of the 3 in Russia; 3) as a result of the formation of municipal districts, the two-level system of LSG that operated in municipal districts, ensuring maximum approximation of local authorities to the population, is abolished; 4) the role of urban districts and municipal districts in the system of municipalities of the subjects of the Russian Federation is being strengthened.

It is concluded that the main priorities of the subjects of the Russian Federation in the Ural Federal District in the formation of municipalities are not the creation of optimal conditions for the participation of citizens in the implementation of LSG, but the economic self-sufficiency of municipalities and the ability of the state to effectively manage the territory.

Key words: local self-government, subjects of the Russian Federation, municipal formation, city district, municipal district, settlements.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.021

I.M. KUZNETSOV Candidate of Sociology, Leading Researcher, of the Center for the Study Interethnic Relations, Institute of Sociology of the FCTAS RAS, Moscow, Russia

THE PROFILE OF RUSSIAN IDENTITY AND PATRIOTIC ATTITUDES OF THE POPULATION OF A LARGE INDUSTRIAL CITY IN THE CONDITIONS OF SMO (THE CASE OF MAGNITOGORSK)

The article presents the first results of applying a multidimensional methodology to measuring the level of All-Russian identity in a sociological study. The methodology of a multidimensional approach to measuring the level of All-Russian identity was constructed on the basis of a five-component model for measuring in-group identification developed by C. Leach and his colleagues. The method allows to quantify the degree of development of such components as solidarity (a measure of psychological connection with other members of the community), emotional satisfaction with belonging to the community, centrality (the significance of belonging to this community in the structure of the individual's Self-concept), individual self-stereotyping (a measure of perceiving themselves in terms of their group membership), in-group homogenity (a measure of perception of this communities as a whole). The article analyzes the relationship of indicators of the profile of Russian identity with different variants of the complex of patriotic attitudes of citizens. The empirical basis of the study was the data from a survey of residents of Magnitogorsk in 2023.

Based on the results of the analysis, the author draws a number of conclusions. A multidimensional study of the profile of the Russian identity of residents of a large industrial city of Russia in the conditions of SMO (in comparison with the available data on the identity profile of citizens of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) at relatively peaceful time (2021) showed an intensive increase in indicators for all components of the structure of Russian identity, which generally reflects the dynamics of consolidation processes taking place in Russian society against the background of geopolitical the confrontation between Russia and Western countries.

The analysis of changes in the structure of patriotic attitudes at the context of SMO showed that in the context of global external pressure, patriotic beliefs of a "protective" nature are becoming in demand in public opinion, emphasizing the importance of protecting Russia from external innovative influences, both political and cultural.

Key words: profile of All-Russian identity, multidimensional approach, multi-component model of in-group identification, hierarchy of identification grounds, identity configuration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.024

I.M. GABDRAFIKOV Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher, R.G. Kuzeev Institute for Ethnological Studies – Subdivision of the Ufa federal Research Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

D.A. SHILKIN Postgraduate, Institute of Ethnological Research Ufa Federal Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

ON THE DYNAMICS OF THE NUMBER OF RUSSIANS IN THE REPUBLIC OF BASHKORTOSTAN ACCORDING TO THE RESULTS OF THE ALL-RUSSIAN POPULATION CENSUS OF 2020-2021

The article makes a comparative analysis of the dynamics of the number of the largest ethnic group in Russia – Russians in the Republic of Bashkortostan and the Russian Federation according to the results of the population census of 2020-2021, comparing them with the data of previous censuses: 2002 and 2010. The change in the number of Russians in the country, namely the tendency of its reduction from census to census, is not only the subject of research by scientists, but also the object of public attention, individual politicians. The censuses record a steady downward trend in the number of Russians in post-Soviet Russia. Experts name various objective and subjective reasons for the decline in the number of Russians according to official census data. At the same time, the dynamics of the number of Russians in modern Russia is not developing in a straight line, its regions have their own specifics. One of these regions is the Republic of Bashkortostan, in which the statistical indicators of Russians have their own characteristics.

Key words: russians, Rosstat, Bashstat, Russia, Republic of Bashkortostan, Ufa, All-Russian Population Census, ethnodemography, ethnic statistics, ethnic composition, ethnic groups, natural and mechanical movement of the population.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.025

R.S. SAVITSKY Postgraduate student of the South Russian Institute management – branch of the Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Rostov-on-Don, Russia

ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF PATRIOTIC EDUCATION OF A CITIZEN IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION

This article is devoted to a comprehensive analysis of the organizational features of the formation of patriotic consciousness in the Russian Federation, taking into account internal politics and external threats. The author examines the measures taken by administrative authorities to increase the level of patriotism, including state programs and federal projects, as well as the importance of patriotic education in different age groups. Attention is focused on the difficulties associated with the patriotic consciousness of youth, the impact of globalization and information technology. The importance of the prestige of the teaching profession in the context of patriotic education is emphasized, as well as the need to adapt approaches and methods in this area to modern conditions.

Key words: patriotism, patriotic education, pedagogical worker, globalization, age groups, youth, public policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.026

A.I. KHALIULINA Senior Researcher, Department of Ethnopolitology Institute of Ethnological Research Ufa Federal Research Center Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

F.F. SAFIN Postgraduate, Institute of History, Language and Literature, Ufa Federal Research Center Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

D.A. SHILKIN Postgraduate, Institute of Ethnological Research Ufa Federal Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

PATRIOTISM AS A FACTOR IN THE FORMATION OF RUSSIAN IDENTITY (ACCORDING TO SURVEYS IN BASHKORTOSTAN)

The article examines the problems of the formation of Russian identity in multiethnic Bashkortostan. One of the factors significantly influencing the formation of the all-Russian identity is the patriotism of Russians, especially manifested during the period of military and other conflicts in the world that threaten the Russian Federation. During the ethnosociological survey, it was found that such an opinion is widespread among all strata of Russian society, regardless of ethnicity. It was also revealed that a significant group of respondents constantly have a feeling of feeling like a Russian. This position is generally supported by a significant part of the youth of the republic. The peoples living in the Republic of Bashkortostan generally share the idea of a "united all-Russian nation." The special military operation that began in Ukraine only strengthened the unity of the peoples of Russia, increasing the patriotic mood among citizens, regardless of nationality.

Key words: patriotism, Russian identity, Bashkortostan, military conflicts, Russian nation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.027

A.I. KHALIULINA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Researcher at the Department of Ethnopolitology of the R.G. Kuzeev Institute of Ethnological Research – OSP of the Ufa Federal Research Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ufa, Russia

FUNCTIONING OF SOCIAL AND COMMUNICATION SYSTEMS IN THE CONTEXT OF THE MEDIA ECOSYSTEM

In the life of a modern multiethnic region, the ecosystem of mass media is gaining a significant role. The peculiarities of the functioning of the social and communicative system in the mass media lies not only in the fact that a huge mass of information comes from it, but representatives of different ethnic groups living in the region have a special predilection for the transmitted information, which in turn has a direct impact on interethnic relations. The object of the study is the media ecosystem. The subject of the research is the directions and social functions of various media in the system of social communications. The purpose is to study the tasks and ways of functioning of social and communication systems in the context of the media ecosystem in the Republic of Bashkortostan. The analysis of the linguistic potential of idioms-components of the socio-communicative system shows that, in general, it satisfies the ethno-linguistic needs of ethnic groups.

Key words: socio-communicative system, mass media, Bashkortostan, native language, ethnicity, language potential, sociological survey.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.030

G.R. GABRIELYAN Postgraduate student of the Department of Political Science and Law Faculty of History of Political Science and Law of the State university of education, Moscow, Russia

DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL INTERNET PLATFORMS AS A FACTOR IN ENSURING INFORMATION SECURITY OF THE PRC

The article is devoted to the study of tools for ensuring information security in the People's Republic of China, in particular national social networks and Internet platforms created on the territory of the country. The presence of own national platforms in China and their popularity allows the authorities to effectively use various tools to control the information published on the Internet. Due to the fact that all social networks (WeChat, Weibo, Bilibili, Douyin, Kuaishou, Zhihu, etc.) used by Chinese citizens are created on the territory of China, the government can quite easily monitor all the actions of citizens on the Internet and effectively block any undesirable content. This is primarily important in terms of ensuring domestic political stability.

Key words: People's Republic of China, information policy, information security, Internet, social networks.

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND INDUSTRY POLICIES

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.023

E.A. BELYAEVA Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Management Smolensk State University, Smolensk, Russia

M.E. ALEKSEEVA Senior Lecturer at the Department of Public Administration and Public Policy of the Russian Academy of Public Administration under the President of the Russian Federation, Moscow, Russia

M.S. GOLDENBERG Student of the master's degree in the field of «State and municipal management», Smolensk State University, Smolensk, Russia

THE STATE SUPPORT FOR PATRIOTIC CIVIL SOCIETY INSTITUTIONS IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION (USING THE EXAMPLE OF THE ALL-RUSSIAN PUBLIC-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION «RUSSIAN MILITARY HISTORICAL SOCIETY»)

The article provides a historical and theoretical study of the formation of civil society both in Russia and abroad. The peculiarity and specificity of the Russian civil society are defined.

A special case of public policy mechanisms in the framework of support for civil society institutions in «particularly sensitive areas» is considered. The article provides an example of the activity of the Russian Military Historical Society as a patriotic non-profit organization that provides part of the state policy to support civil society.

Key words: civil society, public organizations, public policy, public administration, non-profit organizations.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.104.11.031

I.S. KUSHNEROV Graduate student of SGLA, Moscow, Russia

PROTECTION OF A PRIVATE INVESTOR BY THE STATE IN THE SANCTIONS REGIME

This work reveals the specifics of the implementation of mechanisms for the protection of private investors by the state in the modern regime of sanctions, which impose certain restrictions on economic activity. The article reflects the specifics of the procedures for protecting private investors from various negative effects of sanctions measures, with the peculiarities of functioning in the regime of political and economic restrictions. The author specifies the specifics of the activities of private investors in the financial market and the impact on this activity of restrictions and prohibitions caused by the imposition of sanctions. The article reveals the activities of individuals in the context of investment, the rights of investors, as well as the main risks caused by the instability of the economic situation.

The study concretizes the results of the application of sanctions against economic entities, as well as the possibility of preventing such consequences and protecting private investors from sanctions and restrictions, conducting anti-crisis policy by the state, and implementing investor support measures.

In the context of the above, we have identified the purpose of the work-to study the mechanisms of protection of private investors by the state in the regime of sanctions and restrictions. The object of the study is the sanctions regime, the subject is the mechanisms for protecting private investors from the consequences of sanctions and restrictions.

In the context of the above, we have identified the purpose of the work-to study the mechanisms of protection of private investors by the state in the regime of sanctions and restrictions. The object of the study is the sanctions regime; the subject is the mechanisms for protecting private investors from the consequences of sanctions and restrictions.

Key words: private investment, sanctions regime, state, investor rights, economic sanctions, investment activity, economic restrictions, retail investor, financial market, economic sanctions.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.104.11.029

A.V. LEVSHA Graduate student, Slavic-Greek-Latin Academy, Moscow, Russia

THE MAIN DIRECTIONS OF DIGITALIZATION OF REGIONAL MANAGEMENT

The work actualizes the need for the development of digitalization of regional management in the context of trends in the development of modern society. The article reveals the main directions of digitalization development in the field of management in the regions, as well as the specifics of the introduction of digital technologies in this activity.

The article examines the existing directions of digitalization of regional management, as well as the prospects for integrating digital technologies into the functioning of government in the regions. Digitalization is considered as an effective management tool in the regions, the implementation of actions requiring compliance with the principles of objectivity, impartiality and timeliness. In this paper, attempts are made to analyze the effectiveness of digital technologies in the implementation of regional management.

The main purpose of the work is to study the main directions of digitalization of regional management. The object of the work is the digitalization of the public administration system; the subject is the directions of digitalization of the activities of regional government bodies.

Key words: digitalization of management, regional management, innovative technologies, digital government, digital innovative tools, political sphere, public administration, regional level, development strategy, local government.

THEORY AND HISTORY OF INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS AND FOREIGN POLICY

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.032

D.A. MOROZOV PhD student at the Department of Political Science of Institute of history and policy of Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow, Russia

N.P. MEDVEDEV Doctor of Political Sciences, Professor, ex-Deputy Minister of Russia for Cooperation with CIS States, Moscow, Russia

THE SPECIFICS OF THE PROCESSES OF TRANSFORMATION OF THE MODERN WORLD ORDER: THE MAIN CONFLICTS

The historiography of world politics shows that the transformative political events of the first decades of each century lead to the emergence of a new world order that sets the tone for the rest of the century. These transformative events suggest various collective norms and shared preferences that shape the structures of the system (order) before they are eventually improved or replaced by another order. This study analyzes the processes of the current transformation of the modern world order within the framework of the transition from a bipolar to a multipolar system.

Key words: world politics, world order, bipolar system, unipolar system.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.033

O.A. ALEKSEENKO PhD in politics, Assoc. Professor Department of Globalistics, Faculty Of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

SPECIFICS OF THE US MILITARY STRATEGY IN THE ARCTIC REGION

The geopolitical position, resource potential and environmental significance of the Arctic make it a zone of strategic interests of the world's leading states, which, in turn, creates threats to regional stability.

The Arctic states include Norway, Sweden, Finland, Russia, the USA, Denmark and Iceland. According to the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea of December 10, 1982, these states have the sovereign right to develop subsoil within the limits of their exclusive economic zones in the Arctic and the continental shelf.

The Arctic is of great strategic importance in military terms, because here are convenient positions for strategic deterrence systems. The melting of ice led to the emergence of new military bases in the northern territories. Intelligence forces, military shipping and complex exercises of army formations intensified.

One of the states that is actively developing scenarios for dominance in the Arctic is the USA. Despite the comprehensive approach, American Arctic policy is based primarily on the National Security Strategy and acts as a catalyst for many contradictions and conflicts with other circumpolar countries, primarily with the Russian Federation. This article is devoted to an overview of key US military initiatives in the Arctic.

Key words: Arctic, USA, Navy, Coast Guard.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.034

V.A. VOLOKH Dr. Sci. (Pol. Sci.), Professor of the State University of Management, Moscow, Russia

T.N. DMITRIEVA Cand. Sci. (Pol. Sci.), Associate Professor of State Theory and Law, Labour and Social Law Moscow University for the Humanities, Moscow, Russia

FORCED MIGRANTS IN RUSSIA AND FRANCE: INTEGRATION TRAJECTORIES

Persons who have been granted asylum on the territory of the Russian Federation are practically not involved in adaptation and integration practices. Due to the absence of mechanisms for adaptation and integration of persons granted asylum in the Russian Federation for a long period, the authors of the article believe it would be advisable to turn to foreign experience in this area. Before the explosive growth in the number of refugee arrivals in 2015, the French integration model gave better results compared to other EU countries. Using a comparative method and a structural-functional approach, the authors examine the French experience in the field of integration of newly arrived foreign citizens, including forced migrants. It has been established that despite the strategically erroneous policy of accepting forced migrants in France, the country has a complex and multi-level system of social and cultural integration of arriving foreigners planning long-term residence on French territory. The immigrant integration policy in France has full institutional, legal, and technological support. On the contrary, the Russian Federation's asylum policy excludes the provision of protection to economic migrants, which prevents the emergence of a migration crisis similar to the European one. At the same time, in order to implement an effective policy of social and cultural adaptation and integration of persons granted asylum, it is necessary to develop both regulatory instruments and the creation of appropriate infrastructure. The authors come to the conclusion that the study and assessment of the instrumental component of the policy of integration of foreign citizens in the French Republic will improve methodological approaches to the formation of a comprehensive multi-level system of adaptation and integration of foreign citizens in the Russian Federation.

Key words: asylum, actors and mechanisms of integration, legal support for policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.028

N.S. KULESHOVA Doctor of Philosophy, Associate Professor Professor, Department of Global Processes Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

CHEN HANZHI Employee Shenzhen MSU-BIT University, Candidate of Department of Political Science of the East of the Faculty of Global Studies, Moscow State University Lomonosov, Moscow, Russia

POLITICAL INTERACTION OF THE PRC WITH AFRICA IN THE CONTEXT OF ECONOMIC INTERACTION

The actualization of the study of the modern foreign policy strategy of the PRC is explained by the economic power of China and the expansion of its political influence. China's foreign policy has conceptual features that are expressed in its implementation. The political role of the PRC in the system of international relations has increased significantly. This study is devoted to one of the most important vectors of modern Chinese foreign policy, namely interaction with African countries. Using cluster analysis, an attempt was made to group the countries of the continent, while it is necessary to note the multidimensionality of the data, the complexity of combining and comparing. At the same time, the use of cluster analysis in research is effective because it provides the possibility of statistical justification and comparison. Of course, a more in-depth analysis is required at the bilateral level of countries' relations, which can serve as a new research direction.

Key words: foreign policy, China, Africa, international relations, national interests, political interaction.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.035

F.А. PETROSYAN Postgraduate student of the Department of International Security and foreign policy activities of Russia Russian Academy of National Economy and civil service under the President of the Russian Federation (RANEPA), Moscow, Russia

SECTORAL SYSTEM OF COOPERATION IN THE NORTHERN DIRECTION OF RUSSIA’S FOREIGN POLICY

The topic of the article is relevant for Russian political science and foreign policy practice. In the conditions of modern geopolitical turbulence, it is especially important for Russia to have partners with whom we can jointly develop the Arctic, taking into account, first of all, our national interests. The article used the author's methodology, including comparative and event analysis, grouping and expert assessment methods, as well as ranking and construction of a matrix of interactions. As a result of the study, a system of sectoral cooperation was proposed, allowing Russia to most fully realize its national interests and strategic national priorities, taking into account the impossibility of refusing to interact with Western states in this region. The results of the study can be useful both to the expert community and to the authorities responsible for conducting Russian foreign policy.

Key words: sectors, system, cooperation, Arctic, North, foreign policy.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.036

N.M. RAKITYANSKIY Doctor of Psychology, Professor, Political Sociology and Psychology Program, Political Science Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

P.M. TSARITSYNA Graduate student, Political Sociology and Psychology Program, Political Science Department, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE POLITICAL ELITES OF FRANCE IN THE CONTEXT OF MENTAL RESEARCH PART 1

In this part of the article, the subject of research is the main stages of the historical past of French civilization, in the depths of which the political mentality of the ruling elites was formed. In the beginning, the authors consider the mental and civilizational results of the five hundred years of Romanization of Gaul as a province of the Roman Empire. The role of Christian proselytism in the formation of the monotheistic mentality and the political role of the Church of Gaul are revealed. The thesis about the mental heritage of the Roman Empire in the conditions of its collapse and the formation of the foundations of an original Christian nation is revealed. Then there is the convergence of the Roman and barbarian social structures of the Frankish Empire, as a result of which a monotheistic mental space was formed and Catholicism became the state religion. The conclusion is made about the historical and mental-political significance of chivalry. In the last section, the authors turned to the philosophical, theological and scientific heritage of the enlighteners of the Middle Ages and the New Age, who influenced the development of the political mentality of the French elites.

Key words: ruling elites, heritage, power, empire, war, patriotism, church, religion, state, Gauls, Franks, Christianization, Catholicism, paganism, mentalization, Romanization, mental-political, monotheistic mentality, values, chivalry, history, philosophy, truth, development, France.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.037

JIN WEIZHOU Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan, Russia

STATUS QUO AND ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE USE OF RUSSIANS IN TACHEN (CHUGUCHAK) XINJIANG CHINA

This article analyzes the use of the Russian language in Tacheng (Xinjiang). Xinjiang is one of the regions where the largest number of Russians are concentrated, especially in Tacheng. However, in Tacheng, Russians' use of their native language has declined and the Russian language is in danger of extinction: almost all Russians use Chinese to communicate, and some Russians use both Kazakh and Uyghur languages. The reasons for this phenomenon lie in the following: firstly, the small size of its population; and secondly, the way of life, widespread interethnic marriages and the low use of the Russian language in the area. The language and writing of Russians in China need political protection. The protection of the Russian language and writing should play an important role for the Russian cultural association, and therefore it is important to consolidate efforts to ensure the preservation of the language and cultural heritage.

Key words: Tacheng, Xinjiang, Russian in China (Chinese Russian), Russian usage status, languages of endangered minorities, language protection, cultural preservation.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.038

A.S. SHAKHBANOVA Master's student, Diplomatic Academy of Russian Foreign Ministry, Moscow, Russia

SAUDI ARABIA AND IRAN: FROM CONFRONTATION TO DIALOGUE

This article analyses the process of normalisation of relations between Saudi Arabia and Iran, the two largest states in the Middle East region. The article examines the reasons for the conflict between these two countries, as well as the history of their relationship at the present stage. The author of the study analyses possible ways to achieve a peace agreement between Saudi Arabia and Iran. In addition, the article examines the implications of normalising relations between the two states for the region and world politics in general. The results of the study may be useful for political figures, experts in international relations, as well as anyone interested in the situation in the Middle East.

Key words: Saudi Arabia, Iran, Arab world, Islam, Sunni-Shia confrontation, Middle East settlement.

STUDENT SCIENCE

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.039

M.V. TARILOVA Master's Degree at the Faculty of Global Studies Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

THE PROBLEMS OF MIGRATION TO RUSSIA FROM THE CIS COUNTRIES AT THE PRESENT STAGE

The article examines the main problems associated with labor migration to Russia from the CIS countries. The article highlights the difference between legal and illegal migration. The challenges of illegal migration and current difficulties in ensuring the effectiveness of legal migration are being analyzed. Not only the economic, but also the demographic and social aspects of the migration process from the CIS countries are emphasized. The article highlights the need to create a state migration strategy of the Russian Federation to ensure the greatest efficiency of migration in solving national security problems.

Key words: Russian Federation, migration from the CIS countries, the migration crisis, the concept of state migration policy, labor migration.

DOI 10.35775/PSI.2023.105.12.040

N.A. CHUZHIKOV Student of the Department of Political Science of the Far Eastern Federal University, Vladivostok, Russia

THE CONCEPT OF LIBERAL NATIONALISM IN THE WORKS OF P.B. STRUVE

The article examines the concept of liberal nationalism by P.B. Struve, a Russian writer, politician, philosopher and sociologist. The author describes the main views of Pyotr Berngardovich on the essence of a nation, the criteria for its definition, and the relationship between the nation and the state. The article also examines the Russian writer’s ideas about how the intelligentsia influenced the historical development of the nation. The author pays special attention to the liberal aspects contained in the national project of Peter Struve.

Key words: nationalism, liberalism, liberal nationalism, P.B. Struve.

   
© 2012 ВОПРОСЫ НАЦИОНАЛЬНЫХ И ФЕДЕРАТИВНЫХ ОТНОШЕНИЙ